Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Maqqari, Shihab al-Din al- - Mawlay


Maqqari, Shihab al-Din al-
Maqqari, Shihab al-Din al- (Shihab al-Din al-Maqqari) (Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmad ibn Mohammed al-Maqqari) (Al-Makkari)) (1577/1591-1632).  Man of letters and a biographer from Tlemcen.  He owes his fame to an immense compilation of historical and literary information, which is of inestimable value for the history of Muslim Spain from the conquest to the last days of the Reconquista.

Al-Maqqari was an historian born in Tlemcen in present-day Algeria. After an early training in Tlemcen, al-Maqqari moved to Fez in Morocco and then to Marrakech, following the court of Ahmad al-Mansur, to whom he dedicated his Rawdat al-As (The garden of Myrtle) about the ulemas of Marrakech and Fez. After al- Mansur's death in 1603, al-Maqqari established himself in Fez, where he was appointed both as mufti and as the imam of the Qarawiyyin mosque by al-Mansur's successor Zidan Abu Maali in 1618, but he had to leave Fez in that same year, probably because of the civil war between the Saadian sultans. He then made the pilgrimage to Mecca.

In the following year, al-Maqqari settled in Cairo. In 1620, he visited Jerusalem and Damascus, and during the next six years made the pilgrimage five times. In 1628, he was again in Damascus, where he gave a course of lectures on Bukhari's collection of Traditions, spoke much of the glories of Muslim Iberia, and received the impulse to write his work on this subject later. In the same year, he returned to Cairo, where he spent a year in writing his history. He was just making preparations to settle definitely in Damascus when he died.

His greatest work, The Breath of Perfume from the Branch of Green Andalusia and Memorials of its Vizier Lisan ud-Din ibn ul-Khattib, consists of two parts. The first is a compilation from many authors on the description and history of Muslim Iberia; it was published as Analectes sur l'histoire et la littérature des Arabes d'Espagne (Leiden, 1855-1861), and in an abridged English translation by Pascual de Gayangos (London, 1840-1843). The second part is a biography of Ibn al-Khatib.

Shihab al-Din al-Maqqari see Maqqari, Shihab al-Din al-
Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmad ibn Mohammed al-Maqqari see Maqqari, Shihab al-Din al-
Makkari, al- see Maqqari, Shihab al-Din al-


Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din al-
Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din al- (Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Maqrizi) (Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi) (1363/1364 - 1442).  Egyptian historian.  He appears to have been on familiar terms with Ibn Khaldun.  The best-known of his many works, commonly referred to as Khitat, deals with the topography of al-Fustat, Cairo and Alexandria and with Egyptian history in general.

Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Maqrizi, an Egyptian historian, came from a family of scholars.  His first public appointment was that of a deputy judge in Cairo, where he also lectured on Tradition (the discipline concerning the Traditions -- the Hadith -- of the Prophet) has always been extremely important in Islam, for determining both religious and legal precedent). 

In 1408, Maqrizi was sent to Damascus as controller of a hospital, where he taught in several colleges.  He returned to Cairo some ten years later, and remained there, apart from five years’ residence in Mecca, for the rest of his life, devoting himself to scholarship.

Al-Maqrizi produced histories of the Fatimid caliphs of Egypt and of the Ayyubids, the dynasty of Salah al-Din (Saladin).   He also wrote a detailed topographical description of Egypt, which catalogues the physical features and towns, mosques, churches, etc., of the country, and contains accounts of the various peoples, their customs, systems of taxation, calendars, and a large amount of other historical, political and theological information.  Al-Maqrizi also planned a vast biographical dictionary which was left unfinished.

Al-Maqrizi composed a number of monographs on historical subjects, and also on Islamic coins, weights and measures, and bees.

Like the works of many Arab authors, those of al-Maqrizi are largely compilations from other books; as most of these are now lost, however, al-Maqrizi’s works are particularly valuable.


Ahmad ibn 'Ali al-Maqrizi see Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din al-
Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi  see Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din al-


Marabout
Marabout (Marbut) (Murabit).  Term designating a Muslim religious leader.  The word may be a French corruption of the Arabic murabit, referring to a type of monastic community.  In the 19th century religious wars in the Senegambia, the term marabout came to refer to any member of the orthodox Muslim faction.

A marabout (marbūṭ or murābiṭ - one who is attached/garrisoned) is an Islamic religious leader and teacher in West Africa, and (historically) in the Maghreb. The marabout is often a scholar of the Qur'an, or religious teacher. Others may be wandering holy men who survive on alms, Sufi Murshids ("Guides"), or leaders of religious communities. Still others keep alive syncretic pre-Islamic traditions, making amulets for good luck, presiding at various ceremonies, telling the future, and in some cases actively guiding the lives of followers. The common practice of receiving gifts or money for this service is disapproved of by orthodox Muslims.

Muslim religious brotherhoods (Tariqah in the Sufi tradition) are one of the main organizing forms of West African Islam, and with the spread of Sufi ideas into the area, the marabout's role combined with local practices throughout Senegambia, the Niger river valley, and the Futa Jallon. There, Sufi believers follow a marabout, elsewhere known as a Murshid ("Guide"). Marabout was also adopted by French colonial officials, and applied to almost any imam, Muslim teacher, or secular leader who appealed to Islamic tradition.

Today marabouts can be traveling holy men who survive on alms, religious teachers who take in young talibes at koranic schools, or distinguished religious leaders and scholars, both in and out of the sufi brotherhoods which dominate spiritual life in Senegambia.

In the Muslim brotherhoods of Senegal, marabouts are organized in elaborate hierarchies; the highest marabout of the Mourides, for example, has been elevated to the status of a Caliph or ruler of the faithful (Amir al-Mu'minin). Older, North African based traditions such as the Tijaniyyah and the Qadiriyyah base their structures on respect for teachers and religious leaders who, south of the Sahara, often are called marabouts. Those who devote themselves to prayer or study, either based in communities, religious centers, or wandering in the larger society, are named marabouts. In Senegal and Mali, these Marabouts rely on donations to live. Often there is a traditional bond to support a specific marabout that has accumulated over generations within a family. Marabouts normally dress in traditional West African robes and live a simple, ascetic life.

Some Senegalese marabouts have been accused of exploiting young students, recruiting young boys from all over Senegal and neighboring countries to enroll in their schools. These children are then forced to beg on the streets for money under threat of physical harm, while their teachers take the profits, leaving the children without proper clothing, food or shelter.  This exploitation is in stark contrast to the tradition of Marabout-led koranic schools which have operated across West Africa for centuries.

The spread in sub-saharan Africa of the marabout's role from the eighth through 13th centuries of the Christian calendar created in some places a mixture of roles with pre-Islamic priests and divines. Thus, many fortune tellers and self styled spiritual guides take the name marabout (something rejected by more orthodox Muslims and Sufi brotherhoods alike). The recent diaspora of West Africans (to Paris in particular) has brought this tradition to Europe and North America, where some marabouts advertise their services as fortune tellers.


Marbut see Marabout
Murabit see Marabout
One who is attached see Marabout
One who is garrisoned see Marabout


Maraghi, Mustafa al-
Maraghi, Mustafa al- (Mustafa al-Maraghi) (1881-1945).  Egyptian reformist and rector of al-Azhar (1928-1929 and 1935-1945).  Shaykh Mustafa al-Maraghi is the link between the reforms of his mentor Muhammad ‘Abduh and such subsequent leaders of al-Azhar as Mustafa ‘Abd al-Raziq, ‘Abd al-Halim Mahmud, and Mahmud Shaltut; the last, his professed disciple, later transformed al-Azhar by compromising with the secular nationalist regime of Gamal Abdel Nasser.

He was described by his contemporaries as a unique man of strong character and leadership abilities.  Maraghi’s dismissal by King Fu’ad in 1929 caused a revolt among the Azhari ‘ulama’ that resulted in the dismissal of seventy of them.

As a reformer, Maraghi believed in Islam’s flexibility and ability to adapt to the needs of modernity.  He called for social, legal, and educational reforms and pursued an aggressive campaign begun by ‘Abduh and finished by Shaltut -- to integrate the modern sciences into al-Azhar’s curriculum.  To that end he organized committees to reform the university’s regulations and curriculum and created a supervisory department for research whose responsibilities included publishing and translation.

Maraghi called for the exercise of ijtihad, reinterpretation, and opposed taqlid, the blind following of tradition.  He worked for the reconciliation of different Muslim madhhabs (schools of law) and cooperated with the Aga Khan in setting up Islamic educational and research associations to arbitrate between various madhhabs and strengthen ties among them.  He also waged a campaign against Christian missionaries and the schools they opened in Egypt, which he felt were comprising Islam and undermining Islamic society.  He also participated in international religious conferences, where he asked for recognition of the equality of all religious groups.

Maraghi was in several senses an enigmatic figure.  Although a leader at conservative al-Azhar, he was nevertheless a close associate of Ahmad Lutfi al-Sayyid and the liberal Ahrar Dusturiyun Party.  He opposed British rule, yet he often cooperated with the British.  He refused to support King Fu’ad’s bid for the Islamic caliphate after its 1924 cancellation by Ataturk, yet later he joined Misr al-Fatat’s Ahmad Husayn in calling upon King Faruq (who reinstated him as Shaykh al-Azhar in 1935) to claim it.  His professed desire for a greater role in government for the clergy did not stop him from proposing a reform program that, if fully implemented, could have weakened them, since it included closure of Dar al-‘Ulum and the school for shari‘a judges.  It is also reported that he proposed the translation (to other than Arabic languages) of the Qur’an to King Faruq.

As Shaykh al-Azhar, Maraghi exerted a final effort to keep that institution under full clerical authority at a time when the ‘ulama’ were losing authority to a new bureaucratic and intellectual order whose discourse was secularly oriented.  Students of Egyptian social history also note his provincial origin in the small Upper Egyptian town of Maragha near Tahta as a reminder of the often-forgotten importance of the periphery in the transformation of the center.



Mustafa al-Maraghi see Maraghi, Mustafa al-


Marakkayar
Marakkayar. Endogamous Tamil-speaking Muslim group of southern India in the coastal districts of Tamil Nadu state.  They are Shafi‘i Sunnis and read the Qur’an in a Tamil translation written in Arabic characters.


Maranao
Maranao.  The Maranao are a Philippine Muslim group living predominantly around Lake Lanao in the northwest portion of the island of Mindanao.  The word “Maranao” means “people of the lake,” and it is used to designate not only the people, but also the language spoken by the people.

Lake Lanao, the largest lake in Mindanao and the second largest fresh water lake in the Philippines, is approximately 2,300 feet above sea level.  It empties into the Agus River, which feeds the Maria Christina Falls about 18 miles north of it.  The southern tip of the lake is approximately 21 miles from the municipality of Malabang on the southwestern coast of Mindanao.  Thus, the Maranao are predominantly a non-coastal inland group relatively isolated from coastal Filipinos and foreign colonial powers until recently.  The mountainous terrain between the coast and Lake Lanao has made it difficult for outsiders to influence the Maranao.  A cement road between Marawi City and Iligan City and improved roads elsewhere in the area are changing this situation. 

Of the major Muslim ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines, the Maranao were the last to be Islamized.  They have also been a major center of fierce resistance against the Spanish, the Americans, the Japanese and the Republic of the Philippines, especially after martial law was declared in September 1972. 

Many Maranao became vehemently opposed to the Republic of the Philippines, especially the feature of martial law, and a number of Maranao engaged in armed revolt against it.  They preferred a federated system of government, which would have allowed for more local autonomy; or they preferred to secede from the republic completely in order either to align themselves with a Muslim country or to be independent altogether.  Loyalty to descent groups caused many Maranao to tolerate, shelter or support the rebels, whom they affectionately referred to as “the children.”

The native Maranao have a fascinating culture that revolves around kulintang music, a specific type of gong music, found among both Muslim and non-Muslim groups of the Southern Philippines. In 2005, the Darangen Epic of the Maranao people of Lake Lanao was selected by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.


Mar‘ashis
Mar‘ashis.  Line of sayyids originally from Mar‘ash, a town in the Taurus Mountains region of southern Anatolia, Turkey.  The Mar‘ashis formed a dynasty which dominated Mazandaran, Iran, between 1358 and the second half of the sixteenth century.


Maratha
Maratha (Mahratta) (Mahratti). Name of the caste cluster of Hindu agriculturalists turned warriors inhabiting northwest Deccan.  Their greatest chief was Sivaji (1627-1680), who challenged the Mughal Emperor Aurangzib.

The Maratha, also spelled Mahratta or Mahratti,  are a major people of India, famed in history as yeoman warriors and champions of Hinduism. Their homeland is the present state of Maharashtra, the Marathi-speaking region that extends from Mumbai (Bombay) to Goa along the west coast of India and inland about 100 miles (160 km) east of Nagpur.

The term Maratha is used in three overlapping senses: within the Marathi-speaking region it refers to the single dominant Maratha caste or to the group of Maratha and Kunbi (descendants of settlers who came from the north about the beginning of the 1st century ce) castes; outside Maharashtra, the term often loosely designates the entire regional population speaking the Marathi language, numbering some 80 million; and, used historically, the term denotes the regional kingdom founded by the Maratha leader Shivaji in the 17th century and expanded by his successors in the 18th century.

The Maratha group of castes is a largely rural class of peasant cultivators, landowners, and soldiers. Some Maratha and Kunbi have at times claimed Kshatriya (the warrior and ruling class) standing and supported their claims to this rank by reference to clan names and genealogies linking themselves with epic heroes, Rajput clans of the north, or historical dynasties of the early medieval period. The Maratha and Kunbi group of castes is divided into subregional groupings of coast, western hills, and Deccan Plains, among which there is little intermarriage. Within each subregion, clans of these castes are classed in social circles of decreasing rank. A maximal circle of 96 clans is said to include all true Maratha, but the lists of these 96 clans are highly varied and disputed.



Mahratta see Maratha
Mahratti see Maratha


Mardam
Mardam.  Affluent and distinguished Syrian family.  Renown was achieved by Jamil Mardam (1894-1961), a politician, and by his cousin Khalil (1895-1959), a litterateur.


Mardini, al-
Mardini, al-. Name of origin of three mathematicians and astronomers: Abu’l-Tahir (Ibn Fallus) (1194-1252); ‘Abd Allah ibn Khalil (d. 1406); and Muhammad ibn Muhammad (Sibt al-Mardini) (1423-1506).


Marghinani, al-
Marghinani, al-.  Name of two families of Hanafi lawyers whose native town was Marghinan in Ferghana.  The most important was Burhan al-Din Abu’l-Hasan (d. 1197).  His principal work is a legal compendium, on which he himself wrote a commentary in eight volumes, and a second celebrated commentary, which later writers repeatedly edited and annotated.

Qazi Halb Burhan-ud-din al-Marghinani was an Islamic scholar, presumably a Hanafi.  His full name was Sheikh Burhan al-Din Al al-Farghani al-Marghinani.

The works of al-Marghinani include:

    * Sirat al-Halbiya
    * Hidayah


Marhaen
Marhaen. Term coined by Sukarno in 1930 referring to individuals who own only sufficient means of production to support themselves at subsistence level.  It includes impoverished peasant smallholders, fishermen, street vendors, and the like who, Sukarno argued, made up the bulk of the Indonesian population.  While a strict definition of marhaen excludes proletarians, who sell only their labor, the term was generally used to refer to all impoverished Indonesians and by extension to the entire Indonesian people, who Sukarno claimed were oppressed by capitalism and imperialism.  This concept enabled Sukarno to incorporate Marxist analysis into his nationalistic critique of colonialism without promoting class conflict within Indonesian society.


Mari-Djata II
Mari-Djata II (Mari Diata II) (d. 1373/1374).  Ruler of the Mali Empire (r.1360-1373/1374).  He was a grandson of the famous Mansa Musa.  Although Musa had been succeeded by his son, the next two rulers were not his direct descendants.  In 1360, Mari-Djata challenged Qasa, the second of these.  After a nine month civil war Mari-Djata emerged victorious, thereby restoring power to the descendants of Musa.  Ibn Khaldun reported that Mari-Djata was Mali’s most oppressive ruler.  He died of sleeping sickness and was succeeded by his son, Musa II (r. 1373/1374-1387).

Mari Diata II was mansa of the Mali Empire from 1360 to 1374.  Son of Mansa Maghan, he assumed the throne following the brief 1360 reign of Mansa Kankan Musa I's nephew Kassa. Tunisian historian Ibn Khaldun records that Mari Diata II was remembered as a tyrant, increasing the tax burden on his people to finance "debauchery and follies of all kinds."

Mari Diata was succeeded by his sons Musa II (1374-1387) and Magha II (1387-1389).


Mari Diata II see Mari-Djata II


Marinid
Marinid (Merinid) (Benemerine) (Mariniyun) (Banu Marin).  Berber dynasty of the Zanata group in Morocco (r.1244-1465).  Their main capital was Fez.    The first period of their reign (1269-1358) was characterized by military exploits, urban expansion and governmental stability, the second (1359-1464) by a slow erosion of the political structures, a territorial regression and internal division. The Banu Marin, a nomadic Zanata tribe from the eastern border territories of the Zahara, settled in eastern and southeastern Morocco from the start of the twelfth century.  After increasing tension with the ruling Almohads, the Merinids, under the brothers Abu Yahya Abd al-Haqq (r. 1244-1258) and Abu Yusuf Yaqub (r. 1258-1286) took Meknes (in 1244), Fez (in 1248), and other important towns in Morocco.  They deposed the last Almohads in Marrakech in 1269 and extended their power until they were the most important towns in Morocco.  They deposed the last Almohads in Marrakech in 1269 and extended their power until they were the most important military attacks in Spain.  Under Abu Yaqub Yusuf (r. 1286-1307) they spread as far as Algeria.  A period of political success followed under Abu’l-Hasan Ali (r. 1331-1374) and Abu Inan Faris (r. 1351-1358), who also drove out the Abdalwadids and occupied Tlemcen, even advancing as far as Tunisia for a short time.  A rapid decline came after 1358.  Child sultans ruled from 1358 to 1374 and 1393 to 1458 under the tutelage of the related Wattasids and between 1374 and 1393, the Nasrids of Granada.  The last Merinid ruler, Abd al-Haqq (1421-1465), temporarily ended the rule of the Wattasids with a massacre in 1458, but died shortly afterwards during a popular uprising in Fez.  Morocco fell to the Wattasids.

The Marinid dynasty or Benemerine dynasty was a Zenata Berber dynasty of Morocco. They overtook the Almohads in controlling Morocco in 1244, and most of the Maghreb from the mid-1300s to the 15th century, and also supported the Kingdom of Granada, in Al-Andalus, in the 13th and 14th centuries. The last Marinid fortress in the Iberian Peninsula fell to Castile in 1344, and they were in turn replaced by the Wattasids in 1465.

The Marinids originally came from Ifriqiya, through the southeast of present-day Morocco, from which they were expelled in 1224 by the Arab Hilali tribes. As early as 1145, the Marinids engaged in battles with the Almohads, which defeated them until 1169.

In 1169, the Marinids began their pursuit of taking Morocco from the Almohads, the ruling dynasty at the time. Following their expulsion from the south, they moved northwards under command of Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq and took Fes in 1244, making it their capital. This marked the beginning of the Marinid dynasty.

The Marinid leadership installed in Fes declared war on the Almohads with the aid of Christian mercenaries. Abu Yusuf Yaqub (1259–1286) captured Marrakech in 1269, and then took control of most of the Maghreb towards the end of 1268, including present-day Morocco, Algeria and part of Tunisia. After the Nasrids cession of Algeciras to the Marinids, Abu Yusuf went to Al-Andalus to support them in their struggle against the Kingdom of Castile.

Having obtained this control, the Marinid dynasty tried to extend its control to the commercial traffic of the Strait of Gibraltar. To this end, they declared jihad on the Christians and occupied the cities of Rota, Algiers and Gibraltar successively, surrounding Tarifa for the first time in 1294.

Internal power struggles among the Merinids followed, which did not, however, prevent Abu Said Uthman II (1310–1331) from substantial construction work in Fez. Several madrassas for the education of public servants were founded, in order to support the centralization of administration and to reduce the influence of the not always reliable Marabuts.

The Marinids also strongly influenced the policy of the Kingdom of Granada, from which they enlarged their army in 1275. In the mid 1300s, Castile made several incursions into Morocco and in 1267 a full-scale invasion of Morocco, but the Marinids successfully defended Morocco and drove out the Castilians.

Under Abu al-Hasan (1331–1348) another attempt to reunite the Maghreb was made. In 1337, the empire of the Abdalwadids in (what is now called) Algeria was conquered, followed in 1347 by the empire of the Hafsids in Ifriqiya (Tunisia). However, in 1340, the Marinids suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of a Portuguese-Castilian coalition at the Battle of Rio Salado, and finally had to withdraw from Andalusia. Abu l-Hasan was deposed by his son Abu Inan Faris (1348–1358), who tried to reconquer Algeria and Tunisia. Despite several successes, the dynasty began to decline after the murder of Abu Inan Faris, strangled by his own vizier in 1358.

Unruly Bedouin and Berber tribes increasingly spread anarchy in Morocco, which accelerated the fall of the empire. The support of the Marabuts also declined, after the Merinids reduced their financial support in the 15th century due to a financial crisis. The empire became fractured into multiple small kingdoms and city-states.

Merinid rulers after 1358 came under the control of the Wattasids which exercised the real power in the empire as viziers. They rotated Merinid sultans, often still children, in quick succession to ensure a strong viziership. The Wattasids were however equally unable to consolidated the empire, so that in 1415 Portugal occupied the town of Ceuta and by 1513 had occupied all important harbors on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. After Abdalhaqq II (1421–1465) tried in vain to break the power of the Wattasids, they finally toppled the dynasty of the Merinids.

A chronology of events for the Marinid dynasty reads:

    * 1215: Banu Marin (Marinids) attack the Almohads when the young 16 year old Almohad caliph Yusuf II Al-Mustansir took power in 1213. The battle took place on the coast of Rif. Under the reign of Yusuf II Al-Mustansir a great tower to protect the royal palace in Seville was erected.
    * 1217: Abd al-Haqq I dies during a victorious combat against Almohads. His son Uthman ibn Abd al-Haqq (Uthman I) succeeds to the throne. Marinids take possession of Rif and seemed to want to remain there. The Almohades take the initiative of vain counter-attacks.
    * 1240: Uthman I is assassinated by one of his Christian slaves. His brother Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Haqq (Muhammad I) succeeds him.
    * 1244: Muhammad I is killed by an officer of his own Christian mercenaries' militia. Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq, the third son of Abd Al-Haqq, succeeds him.
    * 1249: Severe repression of an anti-marinids in Fes.
    * 1258: Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq dies of disease. After a period of abandonment of the ancient city of Chellah, a necropolis is built[3] there and Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq is buried at Chellah. His uncle Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq, fourth son of Abd Al-Haqq succeeds to the throne.
    * 1260: Raid of the Castilians over Salé.
    * 1269: Seizure of Marrakesh and the end of the Almohad domination in Western Maghreb. The Marinids prefer build a new city Fes Jdid that will replace Marrakesh as a capital city 1276.
    * 1274: The marinids seizure of Sijilmassa.
    * 1276: Founding of Fes Jdid (New Fes), a new city beside Fes which is considered rather as a new district of Fes in opposition to Fes el Bali (Old Fes).
    * 1286: Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Abd Al-Haqq dies of disease in Algeciras (nowadays in Spain) after a fourth expedition to the Iberian Peninsula. His son Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr replaces him.
    * 1286: Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr fights against the revolts which occurred in around Draa River and the province of Marrakesh.
    * 1296: Construction of Sidi Boumediene mosque , or Sidi Belhasan in Tlemcen (nowadays Algeria).
    * 1299: Beginning of Tlemcen's siege by the Marinids which will last nine years.
    * 1288: Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr receives envoys of king de Granada in Fes to which it was returned the town of Cadiz (nowadays Spain).
    * 1291: Construction of the mosque of Taza, the first preserved Marinid building.
    * 1306: conquest & destroy Taroudant
    * 1307: Abu Yaqub Yusuf an-Nasr is assassinated by a eunuch for an obscure business of harem. His son Abu Thabit Amir succeeds him to the throne.
    * 1308: Abu Thabit dies of disease in Tetouan, a city which he had just founded. He dies of a disease after one year in power. His brother, Abu al-Rabi Sulayman succeeds him.
    * 1309: Abu al-Rabi Sulayman enters Ceuta.
    * 1310: Abu al-Rabi dies carried of disease after having repressed a revolt of army official in Taza. Among them Gonzalve, chief of the Christian militia. His brother Abu Said Uthman succeeds him to the throne.
    * 1323: Construction of the Attarin's madrasa in Fes.
    * 1325: Ibn Battuta begins his epic 29 year journey throughout Afro-Eurasia.
    * 1329: Victory against the Castilians in Algeciras, establish a foothold in the south of the Iberian peninsula with the hope of reversing the Reconquista.
    * 1331: Abu Said Uthman dies. His son Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman succeeds him .
    * 1337: First occupation of Tlemcen.
    * 1340: A combined Portuguese-Castilian army defeats the Marinids at the battle of Rio Salado close to Tarifa, the southernmost town of the Iberian peninsula. At that point the Marinids move back to Africa.[4]
    * 1344: The Castilians take over Algeciras. Marinids ejected from Iberia.
    * 1347: Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman destroys the Hafsid dynasty of Tunis and restores his authority on all Maghreb but this success was of short duration.
    * 1348: Abu al-Hasan dies, his son Abu Inan Faris succeeded him as Maririd ruler.
    * 1348: The Black Death and the rebellions of Tlemcen and Tunis mark the beginning of the decline of Marinids which will not manage to drive back the Portuguese and the Castilians, thus allowing them, by the means also of their successors Wattasids settling on the coast.
    * 1350: Construction of Bou Inania's medersa in Meknes.
    * 1351: Second seizure of Tlemcen.
    * 1357: Defeat of Abu Inan Faris in front of Tlemcen. Construction of another Bou Inania's medersa in Fes.
    * 1358: Abu Inan is assassinated by his vizir. Confusions started. Each vizier tries to install his weakest candidate on the throne.
    * 1358: Abu Zian as-Said Muhammad ibn Faris was named a Marinid Sultan by the vizirs, just after the assassination of Abu Inan. His reign will last a few months only. Abu Yahya abu Bakr ibn Faris comes to power. He also reigned only a few months.
    * 1359: Abu Salim Ibrahim is nominated a Sultan by the vizirs. He is one of sons of Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman. He is supported by king of Castille Pedro the Cruel.
    * 1359: Resurgence of the Zianids of Tlemcen.
    * 1361: Abu Salim Ibrahim is replaced by Abu Umar Tachfin. This one was supported by the Christian militia and was named successor of Abu Salim Ibrahim by the vizirs. He reigned only a few months.
    * 1361: The period called the "reign of the vizirs" is over.
    * 1362: Muhammad ibn Yaqub takes power. He is a small son of Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman who had taken refuge in Castille.
    * 1366: Muhammad ibn Yaqub is assassinated by his vizir. He is replaced by Abu Faris Abd al-Aziz ibn Ali, one of the sons of Abu al-Hasan ibn Uthman who until this time, had been held locked up in the palace of Fes.
    * 1370: Third seizure of Tlemcen.
    * 1372: Abu Faris Abd al-Aziz ibn Ali dies of disease leaving the throne to his very young son Muhammad as-Said. This led to a new period marked by instability. The vizirs try on several occasions to impose a puppet sovereign.
    * 1373: Muhammad as-Said who is presented like an heir to his father Abu Faris Abd al-Aziz ibn Ali at the 5 years old cannot reign as he dies in 1373.
    * 1374: Abu al-Abbas Ahmad, supported by the Nasrid princes of Granada takes power.
    * 1374: Partition of the empire into two Kingdoms; the Kingdom of Fes and the Kingdom of Marrakech.
    * 1384: Abu al-Abbas is removed temporarily by the Nasrids after 10 years of reign. Nasrids replace him with Abu Faris Musa ibn Faris, a disabled person and son of Abu Inan Faris which ensured a kind of interim during the reign of Abu al-Abbas Ahmad from 1384 to 1386.
    * 1384: Abu Zayd Abd ar-Rahman reigns over the Kingdom of Marrakech from 1384 to 1387 while the Marinid throne is still based in Fes.
    * 1386: Al-Wathiq ensures the second part of the interim in the reign of Abu al-Abbas from 1386 to 1387.
    * 1387: Abu Al-Abbas begins to give vizirs more power. Morocco knows six years of peace again although Abu Al-Abbas benefits from this period to reconquer Tlemcen and Algiers.
    * 1393: Abu Al-Abbas dies. Abu Faris Abd al-Aziz ibn Ahmad is designated as the new Sultan. The troubles which followed the sudden death of Abu Al-Abbas in Taza made it possible to the Christian sovereigns to carry the war in Morocco.
    * 1396: Abu Amir Abdallah succeeds to the throne.
    * 1398: Abu Amir dies. His brother Abu Said Uthman ibn Ahmad takes power.
    * 1399: Benefitting from the anarchy within the Marinid kingdom, the king Henry III of Castile unloads in Morocco, seizes Tetouan, massacres half of the population and reduced it to slavery.
    * 1415: King John I of Portugal seizes Ceuta. This conquest marks the beginning of the overseas European expansion.
    * 1420: Abu Said Uthman dies. He is replaced by his son Abu Muhammad Abd al-Haqq at the age of 1 year.
    * 1437: Failure of a Portuguese at an expedition to Tangier. Many prisoners are being held and the infant Fernando, the Saint Prince is kept as a hostage. A treaty intervened where the Portuguese obtained to be able to re-embark themselves in condition of returning Ceuta back. Fernando is kept as a hostage to guarantee the execution of this pact. Influenced by Pope Eugene IV, Edward of Portugal sacrifices his brother for the national trade interests.
    * 1458: The king Afonso V of Portugal prepares an army for a crusade against the Ottomans after the call of Pope Pius II. He finally preferred to turn over his force against a small port located between Tangier and Ceuta.
    * 1459: Abu Muhammad Abd Al-Haqq revolts against his own Wattasid viziers. Only two brothers survived. They will become the first Watassids sultans in 1472.
    * 1462: Ferdinand IV of Castille takes over Gibraltar.
    * 1465: Abu Muhammad Abd Al-Haqq has his throat cut in Fes when a popular revolt breaks out against his having appointed a Jewish vizier, Aaron ben Batash. The Portuguese king Afonso V finally manages to take Tangier while benefitting from the troubles in Fes.
    * 1472: Abu Abdallah sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya, one of the two Wattasid viziers survivors of 1459 massacre will install himself in Fes where he would found the Wattasid dynasty.

The rulers of the Marinid dynasty were:

    * Abd al-Haqq I (1195–1217)
    * Uthman I (1217–1240)
    * Muhammad I (1240–1244)
    * Abu Yahya ibn Abd al-Haqq (1244–1258)
    * Umar (1258–1259)
    * Abu Yusuf Yaqub (1259–1286)
    * Abu Yaqub Yusuf (1286–1306)
    * Abu Thabit Amir (1307–1308)
    * Abu al-Rabi Sulayman (1308–1310)
    * Abu Said Uthman II (1310–1331)
    * Abu al-Hasan 'Ali (1331–1348)
    * Abu Inan Faris (1348–1358)
    * Muhammad II as Said (1359)
    * Abu Salim Ali II (1359–1361)
    * Abu Umar Taschufin (1361)
    * Abu Zayyan Muhammad III (1362–1366)
    * Abu l-Fariz Abdul Aziz I (1366–1372)
    * Abu l-Abbas Ahmad (1372–1374)
    * Abu Zayyan Muhammad IV (1384–1386)
    * Muhammad V (1386–1387)
    * Abu l-Abbas Ahmad (1387–1393)
    * Abdul Aziz II (1393–1398)
    * Abdullah (1398–1399)
    * Abu Said Uthman III (1399–1420)
    * Abdalhaqq II (1420–1465)

The rulers of the Wattasid dynasty were:

    * 1420-1448 : Abu Zakariya Yahya
    * 1448-1458 : Ali ibn Yusuf
    * 1458-1459 : Yahya ibn Abi Zakariya Yahya

Merinid see Marinid
Benemerine see Marinid
Mariniyun see Marinid
Banu Marin see Marinid


Mariya
Mariya (d. 637).  Copt maiden sent by al-Muqawqis of Egypt in 627 to the Prophet as a gift of honor.  The Prophet was very devoted to her and she bore him a son Ibrahim, who died in infancy.

Mariya al-Qibtiyya is said to have married the Islamic prophet Muhammed and certainly everyone gave her the same title of respect as the Prophet's wives, 'Umm al Muminin' 'Mother of the Believers'. Mariya was born in upper Egypt of a Coptic father and Greek mother and moved to the court of the Muqawqis when she was still very young. She arrived in Medina to join the Prophet's household just after the Prophet returned from the treaty with Quraish which was contracted at al-Hudaybiyya. Mariya gave birth to a healthy son in 9 AH (630/631), the same year that Muhammad's daughter Zaynab died.  The Prophet named his new son Ibrahim, after the ancestor of both the Jews and the Christians, and the Prophet from whom all the Prophets who came after him were descended. Unfortunately, when he was only eighteen months old, Ibrahim became seriously ill and died.

Muhammad lived in a mud-brick dwelling next to the Medina mosque, and each of his wives had her own mud-brick room, built in a line next to his. Maria, however, was lodged in a house on the edge of Medina. Maria is also not listed as a wife in some of the earliest sources, such as Ibn Hisham's notes on Ibn Ishaq's Sira.[3] Muslim sources are unanimous in saying that she was accorded the same honor and respect given Muhammad's wives, pointing out that she was given the same title as Muhammad's wives – "Mother of the Believers."

Mariya al-Qibtiyya see Mariya
Qibtiyya, Mariya al- see Mariya


marja‘i-taqlid
marja‘i-taqlid (Marja') (Marja dini). Term which means “source of imitation.”  It is a term which refers to the title and function of a hierarchal nature in the Twelver Shi‘a.  It denotes a mujtahid, who is to be considered during his lifetime, by virtue of his qualities and his wisdom, a model for reference by every observant Imami Shi‘a (with the exception of other mujtahids) on all aspects of religious practice and law.  The first Imami doctrinal formulation was produced in the era of the Buyids.  The establishment of Imami Shi‘ism as the state religion under the Safavids gave the mujtahids a dominant spiritual and temporal influence.  It was supported by their economic power in the Shi‘a shrine cities of Iraq, Najaf, Karbala’, Kazimayn and Samarra, and by endowments received from the Qajar Fath ‘Ali Shah.   During the nineteenth century, there existed a precarious equilibrium between the state and the religious authorities, which was apparently also upheld in the early years of the reign of Reza Khan (later Shah) Pahlavi.  After the rebirth of Qum as an educational center in the 1920s, the Imami hierarchy was restructured around the politically neutral Ayatollah Burujirdi, sole Marja‘-i Taqlid since 1947.  Doubts concerning his succession in 1961 led to discussions, during which Ayatollah Khomeini again politicized the Imami leadership.  The publication of these debates led to the imprisonment of Ayatollah Taliqani (d. 1979) and Mihdi Bazargan, following the demonstrations against the “white revolution” of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, in which Ayatollah Khomeini played a prominent role.  The doctrine of the “Rule of the Jurist” (in Persian, wilayat-i faqih) is enshrined in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Today, in Iran, the term marja‘i-taqlid refers to just and learned scholars of law qualified to give authoritative legal opinions.  In Iran, the common people are obligated to accept the marja‘i-taqlid as absolute religious authorities.

Marjaʿ, also known as a marja-i taqlid or marja dini, literally means "Source to Imitate/Follow" or "Religious Reference". It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics. After the Qur'an and the Prophets and Imams, marjas are the highest authority on religious laws in Usuli Twelver Shia Islam.

Currently, marjas are accorded the title Grand Ayatollah (Ayatollah al-Uthma), however, when referring to one, the use of Ayatollah is acceptable. Previously, the titles of Allamah and Imam have also been used.


Marja' see marja‘i-taqlid
Marja dini see marja‘i-taqlid
Source to Imitate/Follow see marja‘i-taqlid
Religious Reference see marja‘i-taqlid


Maronite Catholics
Maronite Catholics (Maronites). Members of the Maronite Church, a Christian church centered in Lebanon and affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church through the Eastern Rite arrangement.  There are also smaller groups in Palestine and Syria, as well as in Cyprus and the United States.  The total number of Maronites is about 1.6 million with 800,000 living in Lebanon.  Maronites represent about twenty-five percent (25%) of the population of Lebanon.  According to the Lebanese constitution, the president of the country must be a Maronite Christian.

In Syria, about 40,000 Maronites live, headed by the archdioceses of Aleppo and Damascus, and the Diocese of Latakia.  Over centuries, the Maronites lived isolated in the mountains, where religion came to play an important role in all aspects of their lives.  In modern times, they have become much more urban and represent an important part of the population in Lebanon’s largest cities.

The spiritual head of the Maronites is the Patriarch of Antioch, who actually resides no longer in Antakia (now Turkey) but in Jounieh north of Beirut.   The liturgy was developed inside the Maronite Church prior to the affiliation to Rome in the twelfth century, but Roman Catholic elements have been introduced.  Even in modern times, Syriac language is used for the services, even though the Maronites use Arabic as the vernacular tongue. 

The Maronites claim to adhere to the Orthodox theology of the Catholic Church, but this is not quite accurate.  From the seventh century onwards, the Maronites were supporters of the doctrines of the patriarch of Constantinople, Sergius, who claimed that Jesus had no human qualities, that Jesus was solely divine.  This doctrine is known as the Monothelite doctrine and is not in compliance with Roman Catholic orthodoxy.  Also, unlike for Roman Catholics, celibacy is not a prerequisite for the Maronite clergy, but is regulated according to local traditions.

A brief history of the Maronite Church read as follows:

Early in the fifth century of the Christian calendar, the hermit Maron, living in northeast Syria fetched the attention of local Christians, and a group started to develop around his domain.  This group survived his death and continued to grow.  Soon the group was known as the “Maronites.”

Late in the seventh century of the Christian calendar, with the arrival of Islam in Syria, the Maronites, under the leadership of Joannes Maro (John Maro), abandoned Syria for the Lebanon mountains.  Over the following centuries, many other Christians fled to the same mountains, where most of them came to join the Maronite Church.

In the twelfth century, the Maronites cooperated with the Crusaders in their battle against the Muslims.  In 1182, the Maronite Church received part affiliation with the Catholic Church, but was allowed to preserve its liturgy and keep the organization with a patriarch in Lebanon.

In 1585, the Maronite College was established in Rome by the pope and was subsequently administered by Jesuits.  The Maronite College became an important training center for the church over the next 350 years. 

In 1648, France declared itself protector of the Catholics living in the Ottoman Empire.  From this time onwards, close ties have existed between France and the Maronites.  This relationship would, centuries later, become one of the central foundations for the creation of the state of Lebanon. 

In 1858, Maronite peasants rebelled against the Maronite aristocracy, destroying their feudal privileges. 

On May 31, 1860, after two years of tensions between Maronites and Druze, the Druze attacked Maronite towns alike Hasbaiya, Bkassine and Jezzine, killing around 1,500 people.  In June of 1860, Lebanon fell into a state of civil war, causing many more killed.  The Ottoman rulers granted the Maronites autonomy, in order to make them feel safe.  Still, the happenings this summer caused many Christians to emigrate to the Americas.

In 1920, the Maronites attained self rule under the French mandate.

In 1943, Lebanon obtained its independence, and its constitution secured the Maronites the position of president.

From 1975 to 1990, the Lebanese Civil War occurred.  The Maronites were one of the main groups involved in the war.  During most of this time, the Maronites were supported by Syria.


Maronites see Maronite Catholics


Marrakushi, Abu ‘Ali al-
Marrakushi, Abu ‘Ali al- (Abu 'Ali al-Marrakushi) (Ibn al-Banna al-Marrakushi al-Azdi) (Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Azdi) (December 1256 – c. 1321) . Astronomer who worked in Cairo during the thirteenth century.  He compiled a compendium of spherical astronomy and astronomical instruments, which is perhaps the most valuable single source for the history of Islamic astronomical instrumentation.

Ibn al-Banna al-Marrakushi al-Azdi was an Arab mathematician and astronomer. The crater Al-Marrakushi on the Moon is named after him.

Al-Banna, the son of an architect, was born in Marrakesh in 1256. Having learned basic mathematical and geometrical skills he proceeded to translate Euclid's Elements into Arabic.

Al-Banna wrote between 51 to 74 treatises, encompassing such varied topics as Algebra, Astronomy, Linguistics, Rhetoric, and Logic. One of his works, called Talkhis amal al-hisab (Summary of arithmetical operations), includes topics such as fractions, sums of squares and cubes etc. Another, called Tanbih al-Albab, covers topics related to:

    * calculations regarding the drop in irrigation canal levels,
    * arithmetical explanation of the Muslim laws of inheritance
    * determination of the hour of the Asr prayer,
    * explanation of frauds linked to instruments of measurement,
    * enumeration of delayed prayers which have to be said in a precise order,and
    * calculation of legal tax in the case of a delayed payment

Yet another work by al-Banna was Raf al-Hijab (Lifting the Veil) which included topics such as computing square roots of a number and theory of continued fractions. This work was also the first mathematical work since Brahmagupta to use an algebraic notation, which was then further developed by his successor Abū al-Hasan ibn Alī al-Qalasādī two centuries later.


Ibn al-Banna al-Marrakushi al-Azdi see Marrakushi, Abu ‘Ali al-
Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Azdi see Marrakushi, Abu ‘Ali al-
Abu 'Ali al-Marrakushi see Marrakushi, Abu ‘Ali al-


Marsafi, al-Husayn al-
Marsafi, al-Husayn al- (1815-1890).  Egyptian scholar and teacher.  Blind from the age of three, he became professor of Arabic linguistic disciplines.  He is regarded as the first to have formulated what was to become the attempt at a renaissance (in Arabic, nahda) in regard to literature.


Martolos
Martolos. Salaried members of the Ottoman internal security forces who were recruited predominantly in the Balkans from among chosen land-owning Christians.  By 1722, the institution was merged with the Muslim local security police.


Martyrs
Martyrs (Shuhada') (Shahid) (Sahid) (Shaheed).  Those who lose or sacrifice their lives in the service of their religion.  Martyrs are accorded a special status in Islam.  This is clear from the earliest sources (Qur’an, hadith) and the auxiliary sources (sirah, maghazi, ‘ilm al-rijal and tafsir).  The word which these sources agree on for designating a martyr is shahid (“witness”).  The most usual meaning of shahid, which appears no less than fifty-six times in singular, plural, and adverbial forms in the Qur’an, is “eyewitness” or “witness” in a legal sense.  There is a close relationship between Islam and Christianity that centers on this meaning; the Christian technical term martyr also means “witness.”  Both traditions share a similar development involving ancient Semitic and Hellenistic religious motifs.  Whatever the previous development that led to the choice of “witness” to designate a believer who has made the ultimate gesture in the path of religion, it is clear that the idea of martyrdom in Islam was thoroughly at home in the early religion.

The problem for philologists resides in the fact that the Qur’an does not appear to use the word shahid in any completely unambiguous way, at least in the singular form, although there is one instance of the use of the plural which has readily lent itself to the martyrdom interpretation.  But apart from the direct reference to the plural shuhada’, the Qur’anic glorification of sabr (endurance in times of difficulty) and the related theme of the suffering of apparently all the prophets at the hands of persecutors, to name only two motifs, blends perfectly with the Islamic admiration of martyrdom, long suffering, and patience.  This theme would reach apotheosis in the poetic expressions of the mystics of Islam who saw as their starting point in this regard such hadith qudsi as: “Who My beauty kills, I am his blood money,” or Hallaj’s “Happiness is from Him, but suffering is He Himself.”

A discussion of martyrdom is anchored in the Qur’an rather than in history as such, because of the central position of scripture in Islam.  It is through the Qur’an that Islam gained its general understanding of the shape and purpose of history -- not to mention many historical details and facts -- whether that history be of the Jahiliyah period or of the epochs of various previous religions and cultures.  Ayoub has pointed out that even in the earliest portion of the Qur’an, that is, in those revelations that came even before the duty of jihad was made incumbent on Muslims, there is a divine confirmation of the ideal of martyrdom, namely, Sura 85:3-8, which many commentators say refers to the famous Christian martyrs of Najran.  But regardless of the actual identities of the persons and events being alluded to, the meaning of the text is unambiguous.

The most important verse to do with martyrdom is one in which shuhada’ (“witnesses”) has come to mean martyrs for so much of exegesis.  Sura 4:69 runs as follows “Whosoever obeys God, and the Messenger -- they are with those whom God has blessed.  Prophets, just men, martyrs [shuhada’], the righteous; good companions they!”  Some authorities, faithful to the exegetical tradition, unhesitatingly uses “martyrs” to translate shuhada’, whereas other translators more cautiously use the English word “witnesses” instead.  This verse is the locus classicus for the later exegetical and theological discussions about the hierarchy of the inhabitants of Paradise.  About the rank of a “witness” (shahid), some offer the following comment: “[These] are the noble army of Witnesses, who testify to the truth.  The testimony may be by martyrdom, as in the case of the Imams Hasan Husain.  Or it may be by the tongue of the true Preacher or the pen of the devoted scholar, or the life of a man devoted to service.”  Thus shahadat, translated as “martyrdom” depending on the context, in its strict sense takes in much more in Islam than the sacrificing of life in the path of God (sabil Allah), indeed it is also the word for the act of confessing adherence to Islam by uttering, “There is no god but God and Muhammad is the messenger of God.”  Nonetheless, shahadat as martyrdom is regarded as highly praiseworthy.  The Qur’an has many passages which indicate an authentic appreciation and inchoate theory of martyrdom: “Say not of those who die in the path of God that they are dead.  Nay rather they live” (Sura 2:154); “Count not those who were slain in God’s way as dead, but rather living with their Lord, by Him provided, rejoicing in the bounty of God has given them, and joyful in those who remain behind and have not joined them, because no fear shall be on them, neither shall they sorrow, joyful in blessing and bounty from God, and that God leaves not to waste the wage of the believers” (Suras 3:157-158; 3:169-171; 9: 20-22; 47:4; and 61:11).  These few verses suffice to illustrate that even though the word “martyr” as such is not found in the Qur’an, and that subject is represented through circumlocutions, nonetheless the virtue is emphatically taught in the verses of the Holy Book.  The Islamic ideal of martyrdom can be thought to be the logical adjunct to the overall Qur’anic view of death as illusory.  This view is perhaps nowhere more succinctly represented in the Qur’an than at 62:6-7.  “Say: ‘You of Jewry, if you assert that you are the friends of God, apart from the men, then do you long for death, if you speak truly.’”

The doctrine of the Hereafter (akhirah) caused Muhammad a great deal of trouble with his early audiences, who stubbornly refused to accept the idea of life beyond the grave.  So in Islam death is paradoxical and it is the paradox which supplies the energy for the strong belief in the spiritual station of martyrs.  Thus, the pre-Islamic Arab literary and cultural motif of fakhr, honor or pride in prowess on the field of tribal warfare found throughout the Ayyam literature, was deemed by Islami “vainglory” and replaced by a glorification of the pious dedication to the struggle for the promotion of the Word of God.  In Muslim’s hadith collection we find the following statement by the prophet Muhammad: “Whosoever partakes of the battle from desire of glory or in order to show his courage, is no martyr; a martyr is only he who fights in order that Allah’s Word may be prevalent.”  Even though it remains to be seen whether or not the pre-Islamic phenomenon does not a more positive relationship with the Islamic ideal of martyrdom, the change in ethos indicated here between the period of Jahiliyah and the Islamic era is quite analogous to the change Christianity wrought in the pagan world.

The theme of martyrdom in Islam is intimately connected with the theme of the rewards of Paradise.  This becomes quite clear in the hadith literature which served as a basis for the final elaboration of the doctrine of martyrdom by the fuqaha’ (religious scholars) of Islam.

The hadith literature is vastly more supportive of and unambiguous about martyrdom than the Qur'an.  Countless explicit statements attributed to the Prophet exist in which it is quite clear that those who die for Islam enjoy a special rank. 

On the theme that martyrs are those who are distinguish in Paradise by their desire to leave their bliss and return to earth to be martyred again (up to ten times), Muhammad is credited with having said that had he followed his personal wish he would not have missed a single battle or campaign in order to be killed in the first and to return to life in each subsequent one.  And on the general theme of desiring death, which would come to be neutralized in later centuries Bukhari preserves a prayer ascribed to ‘Umar in which the second caliph expresses the desire to be killed in the Prophet’s country.

All Muslims, no matter what their madhhab, tariqah, or ta’ifah, esteem martyrdom highly.  This esteem can be ritualistic or devotional, as in the case of the ta‘ziyah commemorations in Shiism, or historical, as in the manner in which all Muslims idealize the formative struggle of the early band of Muslims under the leadership of Muhammad.  It can in fact be existential: that is, Muslims seek to become martyrs.  All three responses to the ideal have existee at all times in Islamic history.  The ideal of martyrdom can be read into the very name of the religion: Islam means submission to the will of God.  And the primary, not to say archetypal, act of submission, according to the Islamic tradition, is Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son, and, presumably, his son’s willingness to comply, thereby rendering Isma‘il (or according to some traditions Ishaq) a martyr, or more accurately, one who was willing to become a martyr.  In its veneration of the individual act of self-sacrifice for a higher moral, ethical, spiritual idea or cause, Islami is no different from any of the other great religious traditions of the world.  However, Islam as a whole is distinguished from other traditions that have theologized away the challenging blade of the martyrdom ideal through metaphor and other abstractions.  This fact accounts for the simultaneous feelings of unease and admiration which occur to the non-Muslim observer of the contemporary scene and its examples of shahadah.  To put it bluntly: martyrdom has become very unfashionable in the West, at least any martyrdom associated with a religious purpose.

There have been times even within the Islamic community when the ideal of martyrdom was also emasculated.  Within the larger Sunni religious culture which was firmly consolidated no earlier than the late ninth century, the personal ethos and ideal of martyrdom had become quiescent as an urgent religious motif.  Even though Sunni theologians recognized the power of the idea and even perpetuated the veneration of the early martyrs of Islam, such as Hamzah, the original sayyid al-shuhada’ or “Prince of Martyrs” (a title which is most familiarly attached to the hero par excellence of the Shi‘a, Husayn ibn ‘Ali), and to venerate the various sacrifices made by the early community as acts of martyrdom, they nonetheless rigorously opposed the cultivation of a contemporary cult of martyrdom in their respective societies by emphasizing the illegality of suicide and equating the seeking of a martyr’s death with this.  This was no doubt at lest partly in response to the activities of Khawarij and Shi‘a whose activities were disruptive to the greater unity of Muslims, the ahl al-sunnah wa al-jama’.  The seeking of martyrdom (talab al-shahadah) thus was discouraged by theologians because of its easy confusion with suicide (and of course, the challenges an active doctrine of martyrdom poses to stable community life) -- an act unequivocably forbidden in islam.  The same theologians elevated the accomplishment of moral and ethical challenges as equal if not prefereable to death: (1) fasting; (2) regularity in prayer; (3) reading the Qur’an; (4) filial devotion; and (5) rectitude in the collection of taxes.  All of these count as valorous deeds in the way of God (fi sabil Allah).  So now the rank of martyr could be sought in the normal acts of worship: the ritiual perfection and purity of motive with which these were performed then determined how close a believer might come to being granted the prize of martyrdom. 

In addition, hadith also contain lists of categories of believers whose deaths occur in such a violent or painful way that they are counted as martyrs.  This can be five, seven, or eight types of death.  The most explicit list is from the Muwatta’ of Malik ibn Anas:

"The martyrs are seven, apart from death in Allah’s way.  He that dies as a victim of an epidemic is a martyr; he that dies by being drowned, is a martyr; he that dies from pleuresy, is a martyr; he that dies from diarrhoea, is a martyr; he that dies by fire is a martyr; he that dies by being struck by a wall falling into ruins, is a martyr; the woman who dies in childbed, is a martyr."

Such scriptural raw material would eventually produce doctrinal statements like the following one from the pen of the preeminent Sunni theologian, Muhammad Abu Hamid al-Ghazali:

"Every one who gives himself wholly to God (tajarrada illahi) in the war against his own desires [nafs}, is a martyr when he meets death going forward without turning back.  So the holy warrior is he who makes war against his own desires, as it has been explained by the apostle of God.  And the “greater war” is the war against one’s own desires, as the Companions said.  We have returned from the lesser war unto the greater one, meaning thereby the war against their own desires.

It is indicative of this transition that none of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs, each of whom is recognized by Islamic tradition as having been murdered, is typically given the rank or title of martyr.  This fact is interesting because Abu Bakr is the only one of the four Rashidun not to have been killed in an open act of violence and might mean that all four are regarded as martyrs, although it is not a common observation in discussing this early period of Islamic history.  It is also true that Sunni Islam has recognized as martyrs those who have died for Islam after the time of the Rashidun.  In keeping with Islam’s communal ethos, martyrdom is treated by the fuqaha’ as not necessarily or foremost a means for individual salvation or felicity in the next world.  Rather, it has the pragmatic value of ensuring the continued existence of the group through its being a mere by-product of communal defense.

Shi‘a Islam, however, is often identified by the way in which the ideal of martyrdom has been kept a vital if not essential element of belief.  The potency of the ideal here can be seen by referreing to the only Islamic movement of the modern period to have acquired a universally recognized distinct or non-Islamic identity -- the Baha’i faith.  In this religion, which began in a Shi‘a milieu, the ideal of martyrdom is retained as an important element of contemporary religious belief.  Shiism, particularly from the beginning of the sixteenth century, with the establishment of the Safavids, took the motif of martyrdom to its bosom and cultivated it as a religio-cultural ideal to a degree unwitnessed earlier.  The Twelver Shi‘a list of martyrs begins with Abel (Qabil) and continues through history to include the prophet Muhammad and eleven of the twelve imams, the exception being, of course, the expected twelfth Imam who has in fact never died.  The martyrdom tradition in Shiism is more difficult to explain.  It is indisputable, for example, that the success of the 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution owes much to the Shi‘a veneration of martyrs and the concomitant willingess of the “average believer” to suffer martyrdom.  The Shi‘a tradition has been the main guardian of the martyrdom ideal for the entire Islamic tradition, for it is within Shiism that the visiting of the graves of the martyrs -- preeminently but not exclusively the imams -- has special significance, that weeping for them, or even pretending to weep, has special religious value, and suffering similar distresses as for example Husayn and his companions, such as thirst, in however slight a degree also has religious value.  Indeed, according to some contemporary Shi‘a authorities, the true meaning of the erstwhile purely mystical term fana’ (annihilation, selflessness) is none other than the sacrifice of the physical life in the path of Islam.

Within Sufism the theme of martyrdom is also highly important.  The Islamic world is adorned with thousands of shrines to pious Muslims who have been regarded as martyrs, although, it should be added, not all places known as mashhad claim for this reason to hold the remains of a bona fide martyr.  (In Turkish, for example, a word for cemetery in general is meshhed.)  In any case, these tombs are the objects of special veneration and pilgrimage, the practice of which is traced to the Prophet himself, who is said to have visited the graves of the martyrs of the Battle of Uhud interred in al-Baqi’ cemetery to pay special homage to them.  The shahid ganj in India is said to be the tomb of no less than 150,000 martyrs.  However, in Sufism martyrdom acquires many of the same features associated with the type of martyr hero most readily exemplified by Jesus in the Gospel accounts of the passion, the most important example here being of course Husayn ibn Mansur al-Hallaj (whose act of martyrdom is frequently conflated with Husan ibn ‘Ali’s) who was crucified in Baghdad in the early tenth century snd has been “kept alive” as an ideal of piety and spiritual valor within not only the Sufi tradition but in some aspects of the wider Islamic cultural context as well: Hallaj is the preeminent martyr hero.  But there have been many others, including his son Mansur, Suhrawardi of Aleppo, ‘Ayn al-Quzat of Hamadan, Nesimi in Turkey, ibn Sab‘in in Spain, and Sarmad in Mughal India, to name only a few of the most famous.  It is important to note that even at the time of Hallaj’s crucifixion, visitation to the tombs of martyrs was such a firmly established practice that Hallaj’s remains were cremated and the ashes scattered on the Euphrates in order that no tomb to him could be erected which would then perhaps become the object of a cult.  A study of the Sufi martyr Mas‘ud Beg in India of the late fourteenth century shows the literary process involved in the acknowledgment of a saint as also a martyr.  It has been noted that Islamic historiography reverses the relationship between passio and vita.  The Islamic martyrologies are later and derive their authority from the norms established by the Prophet and the Imams.

The Islamic faith is based on “bearing witness” to the truth of God’s revelation through his last prophet Muhammad, and that insofar as the most dramatic, and according to some most meaningful, form of bearing witness is to do so with one’s “self” nafs (“self,” soul, life), then Islam is also based on martyrdom.  But, as we have seen, the act of bearing witness is accomplished in Islam in a number of ways, ranging from the uttering of the words la ilaha illa Allah Muhammad rasul Allah to the ultimate act of witnessing, the sacrificing of one’s own life in the pursuit of the establishment of Islamic ideals or the defense of those ideals.  Between these two possibilities are a number of other acts and gestures that have been recognized by fuqaha’ as constituting shahadah within the purview of the Islamic holy law, shari’a.  Some of these other acts are: dying during pilgrimage, dying from a number of particularly virulent and painful diseases, for women dying during childbirth, and so forth.  Today, Islam is distinguished among the world religions by the degree to which and the intensity with which the motif or ideal of martyrdom, in the sense of relinquishing one’s life for faith, is consciously kept alive and cultivated.  The motif within Sunni Islam has been seen to reside chiefly in veneration of the struggles of the early Islamic community with the Meccan Arabs and their Jahili culture.  With the severe dislocations experienced by a large part of the Muslim world since the eighteenth century, a new period of understanding martyrdom has come into being.  In some ways, the importance of the theme in the contemporary world transcends the always somewhat misleading divisions of Sunni, Shi‘a, and Sufi.  Martyrdom was a prominent theme in the Iran-Iraq War where both sides relied heavily on the ideal to motivate military troops. 

From the point of view of the cultural tastes of the non-Muslim world, namely, Europe and North America, anyone who aspires to be a shahid in the physical/existential sense is neither a witness nor martyr, but rather a terrorist or fanatic.  From the point of view of Islamic religio-cultural presuppositions, these people, especially those who lose their lives in the course of an action, are seen as martyrs and knights (fida’iyin).  However, in recent times, event the Western popular press has come to recognize the possible significance in such a disparity of interpretation of the same act.  For example, those who have been indicted for conspiracy to commit acts of terrorism in North America and Egypt at considerable risk to personal life have also been recognized as belonging to organizations without whose existence the vast majority of impoverished Egyptians would have no health care, postal service, or education.

In conclusion, a Muslim martyr, that is one who has died in the service of Islam, is distinguished from other Muslims in the life after death in a number of ways: (1) a martyr is spared the post-mortem interrogation by the two angels Munkar and Nakir: (2) a martyr bypasses purgatory (barzakh) and proceeds directly on death to the highest station in Paradise, those locations nearest the divine throne; (3) this station is called in a hadith the most beautiful abode and the dar al-shuhada’: (4) martyr’s wounds will glow red and smell of musk on the Day of Judgment; (5) of all the inhabitants of Paradise, only the martyrs wish for and are theoretically allowed to return to earth for the purpose of suffering martyrdom; (6) by virtue of their meritorious act, a martyr is rendered free of sin and therefore does not require the Prophet’s intercession (shafa‘ah); (7) some traditions even portray notable martyrs as intercessors for others: (8) as a result of their purity, martyrs are buried in the clothes in which they died and are not washed before burial; (9) according to Ghazali, a martyr enjoys the third highest position in post-mortem existence after the prophets and the ‘ulama’ (religious scholars); according to an earlier authority (Abu Talib al-Makki, d. 996), the martyrs rank second as intercessors after the prophets.


Shahid see Martyrs
Shuhada' see Martyrs
Witnesses see Martyrs
Sahid see Martyrs
Shaheed see Martyrs


Ma‘ruf al-Karkhi
Ma‘ruf al-Karkhi (1875-1945).  Leading poet of modern Iraq.  He was extremely audacious and outspoken in expressing his political views, defending the Arab spiritual revival within the framework of the Ottoman Empire.  He wrote the most vicious poems against King Faisal I and the British and owes his great fame to his political and social poetry.


Karkhi, Ma'ruf al- see Ma‘ruf al-Karkhi


Marwan al-Akbar ibn Abi Hafsa
Marwan al-Akbar ibn Abi Hafsa (d. c. 797).  Classical Arab poet of a family which included several poets.  He was a fierce opponent of the ‘Alids.


Marwan al-Ashgar ibn Abi’l-Janub
Marwan al-Ashgar ibn Abi’l-Janub.  Grandson of Marwan al-Akbar ibn Abi Hafsa and a remarkable satirist during the ninth century.


Marwan ibn al-Hakam
Marwan ibn al-Hakam (Marwan I ibn al-Hakam) (623-685). Umayyad caliph, the first of the so-called Marwanid branch of the dynasty (r.684-685).  He must have known the Prophet and is reputed to have had a considerable reputation for his profound knowledge of the Qur’an.  He helped in the recension of the canonical text during the reign of the Caliph ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.  He acquired extensive personal fortune which he invested in property in Medina.  After the battle of the Camel, in which he fought on ‘A’isha’s side, he somewhat surprisingly gave allegiance to ‘Ali.  At a meeting of the Syrians at al-Jabiya after the death of Mu‘awiya II in 683, Marwan was hailed as caliph.  With the help of the Banu Kalb, he defeated the Banu Qays at the battle of Marj Rahit.  His short reign was filled with military activity in Egypt and Iraq.

Marwan ibn al-Hakam was the fourth Umayyad Caliph. He took over the dynasty after Muawiya II abdicated in 684. Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan to those of Hakam, both of whom were grandsons of Umayya (for whom the Umayyad dynasty is named). Hakam was a first cousin of Uthman ibn Affan.

During the "Battle of the Camel", Marwan ibn al-Hakam is said to have shot his general Talha with an arrow to the thigh, resulting in his death. Marwan killed Talha in revenge for Talha's alleged betrayal of the third Caliph Uthman:

Marwan was removed from his position by Ali, only to be reappointed by Muawiya I. Marwan was eventually removed from the city when Abdullah ibn Zubayr rebelled against Yazid I. From here, Marwan went to Damascus, where he was made the caliph after Muawiya II abdicated.

Marwan's short reign was marked by a civil war among the Umayyads as well as a war against Abdullah ibn Zubayr who continued to rule over the Hejaz, Iraq, Egypt and parts of Syria. Marwan was able to win the Umayyad civil war, the result of which was a new Marwanid line of Umayyad caliphs. He was also able to recapture Egypt and Syria from Abdullah, but was not able to completely defeat him.


Marwan I ibn al-Hakam see Marwan ibn al-Hakam


Marwan ibn Muhammad
Marwan ibn Muhammad (Marwan II ibn Muhammad) (Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan) (Marwan al-Himaar</I.) (al-Himar) (688/695-750).  Last of the Umayyad caliphs of Syria (r.744-750).  With the death of the Caliph Yazid III in 744, he refused to accept the authority of the nominated successor Ibrahim, brother of Yazid, and seized power.  However, it was only in 746 that he finally established his control over Syria.  By 746, he had overcome the Kharijites in Iraq, but by 749 the ‘Abbasids had risen in Khurasan and their caliphate had been proclaimed in Kufa.  In 750, Marwan was defeated at the battle of the Greater Zab, fled to Egypt but fell in a struggle with a pursuing ‘Abbasid force.

In A.H. 114 (732-733), Caliph Hisham appointed Marwan governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan. In A.H. 117 (735-736), Marwan took three fortresses of the Alans and made peace with Tumanshah. In A.H. 121 (739-740), he launched further raids and obtained tribute. In A.H. 126 (744-745), on hearing news of the plot to overthrow al-Walid II, Marwan wrote to his relatives from Armenia strongly discouraging such an act. He urged them to harmoniously preserve the stability and well being of the Umayyad house.

When Yazid III persisted in overthrowing al-Walid II, Marwan at first opposed him, then rendered allegiance to him. On Yazid's early death, Marwan renewed his ambitions, ignored Yazid's named successor Ibrahim and became caliph. Ibrahim initially hid, then requested Marwan give him assurances of personal safety. This Marwan granted and Ibrahim even accompanied the new caliph to Hisham's residence of Rusafah.

Marwan named his two sons Ubaydallah and Abdallah heirs. He appointed governors and proceeded to assert his authority by force. However, anti-Umayyad feeling was very prevalent, especially in Iran and Iraq. The Abbasids had gained much support. As such, Marwan's reign as caliph was almost entirely devoted to trying to keep the Umayyad empire together.

Marwan took Hims (Emesa) after a bitter ten month siege. Al-Dahhak led a Kharijite rebellion. He defeated Syrian forces and took Kufa. Sulayman ibn Hisham turned against Marwan, but suffered a severe defeat. The Kharijites advanced on Mosul and were defeated. Sulayman joined them. Al-Dahhak's successor al-Khaybari was initially successful in pushing back Marwan's center and even took the caliph's camp and sat on his carpet. However, he and those with him fell in fighting in the camp. Shayban succeeded him. Marwan pursued him and Sulayman to Mosul and besieged them there for six months. Then reinforced, the caliph drove them out. Shayban fled to Bahrayn (Bahrain) where he was killed; Sulayman sailed to India.

In Khurasan, there was internal discord with the Umayyad governor Nasr ibn Sayyar facing opposition from al-Harith and al-Kirmani. They also fought each other. In addition Abbasid envoys arrived. There had long been religious fervor and a kind of messianic expectation of Abbasid ascendency. During Ramadan 747 (May 16-June 14), they unfurled the standards of their revolt. Nasr sent his retainer Yazid against them. Yazid, however, was bested, taken and held captive. He was impressed by the Abbasids and when released told Nasr he wanted to join them, but his obligations to Nasr brought him back.

Fighting continued throughout Khurasan with the Abbasids gaining increasing ascendency. Finally, Nasr fell sick and died at Rayy on November 9, 748 at the age of eighty five. The Abbasids achieved success in the Hijaz. Marwan suffered a decisive defeat by Abu al-'Abbas al-Saffah on the banks of the Zab River in a battle called Battle of the Zab. At this battle alone, over 300 members of the Umayyad family died. Marwan fled, leaving Damascus, Jordan and Palestine and reaching Egypt, where he was caught and killed on August 6, 750. His heirs Ubaydallah and Abdallah escaped to Ethiopia. Ubaydallah died in fighting there.

Marwan's death signaled the end of Umayyad fortunes in the East, and was followed by the mass-killing of Umayyads by the Abbasids. Almost the entire Umayyad dynasty was killed, except for the talented prince Abd ar-Rahman who escaped to Spain and founded an Umayyad dynasty there.

Marwan II ibn Muhammad see Marwan ibn Muhammad
Himar, al- see Marwan ibn Muhammad
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan see Marwan ibn Muhammad
Marwan al-Himaar see Marwan ibn Muhammad


Marwanids
Marwanids.  Branch of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs in Syria which began with Marwan I ibn al-Hakam in 684 and came to an end with Marwan II ibn Muhammad (al-Himar) in 750.


Marwanids
Marwanids.  Dynasty of Kurdish origin which ousted the Hamdanids and ruled Diyarbakr from 990 to 1085.  The greatest ruler was Nasr al-Dawla Ahmad.

The Marwanid dynasty was a Kurdish dynasty in Northern Mesopotamia (present day Iraq) and Armenia, centered around the city of Amed (Diyarbakır). Other cities under rule were Arzan, Mayyāfāriqīn (today Silvan), Hisn Kayfa (Hasankeyf), Khilāṭ, Manzikart, Arjish. The founder of the dynasty was a Kurdish shepherd, Abu Shujā Bādh bin Dustak. He left his cattle, took up arms and became a valiant chief of war, obtaining celebrity. When a member of the Iranian dynasty of Buyid, Adud al Dawla, who ruled the Islamic empire, died in 983, Badh took Mayyāfāriqīn, a city of the North-Eastern Diyarbakır. He also seized Akhlat and Nisibis, too.

The Marwanid rulers were:

   1. Abu Shujā' Badh bin Dustak (983-990)
   2. Al-Hasan ibn Marwān (990-997)
   3. Mumahhid al-Dawla Sa’īd (997-1010)
   4. Sharwin ibn Muhammad (1010), usurper
   5. Nasr al-Dawla Ahmad ibn Marwān (1011–1061)
   6. Nizām al-Dawla Nasr (1061–1079)
   7. Nasir al-Dawla Mansur (1079–1085)

Bādh bin Dustak founded the Kurdish emirate and conquered Diyarbakır, as well as a variety of urban sites on the northern shores of Lake Van in Armenia. During the Phocas revolt, Bādh took advantage of the mayhem inside Byzantium to raid the plain of Mus in Taron, an Armenian princedom annexed by Byzantium in 966.

Elias of Nisibis, a Syriac chronicler, mentioned shortly the life of Abu ‘Ali al-Hasan. After the death of his uncle Badh, the elder son of Marwan came back to Hisn-Kayfa, married the widow of the old warrior chief. He fought the last Hamdanids, confused them and took again all the fortresses. Elias related the tragic end of this prince who was killed in Amed (Diyarbakır) in 997 by insurged inhabitants. His brother Abu Mansur Sa’id succeeded to him, under the name of Mumahhid al-Dawla. In 992, after Bad's death and a series of Byzantine punitive raids around Lake Van, Basil II was able to negotiate a lasting peace with the Kurdish emirate.

Mumahhid, a skillful diplomat, made use of the Byzantines' ambitions, who were present in Northern-Anatolia. The relations of this prince with the Emperor Basil II (976-1025) were quite friendly. When Basil learnt the murderer of the Georgian potentate David III of Tao, who had left by testament his kingdom to the Byzantine empire, he stopped the campaign that he had begun in Syria for making sure of Arabian emirs' obedience and he crossed the Euphrates. He annexed David's state, received Mumahhid ed Daula merrily and made peace with him. Mumahhid ed Daula took advantage of peace for restoring the walls of his capital Maïpherqat (Mayyafarikin), the siege of his sovereignty, and made inscribe on it his name, that is still shining nowadays.

In 1000 when Basil II travelled from Cilicia to the lands of David III Kuropalates (Akhlat and Manzikert), Mumahhid al-Dawla came to offer his submission to the emperor and in return he received the high rank of magistros and doux of the East.

In 1010, Mumahhid al-Dawla was assassinated by his ghulam, slave, Sharwin ibn Muhammad, who assumed rulership. He legitimized his rule with the ancient 'law of the Turks', that who kills the ruler becomes himself the successor. However this archaic rule and Sharwin rulership were soon contested, and Sharwin was overthrown.

Nasr al-Dawla was the third Marwan's son, acceded to the throne. As a clever politician, he could skillfully impose on the Buyid emir Sultan al-Dawla, the Fatimid caliph of Egypt Al Hakim and on the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. All of them sent him congratulations. They represented the great powers that surrendered the state-plug of Mayyafarikin. Nasr al-Dawla, "the victorious emir", subdued Ibn Dimne, his vassal in Diyarbakır, in 1011. He signed with the Empire of Istanbul, a pact of mutual non-aggression, but violated it once or twice.

Nasr al-Dawla b. Marwan took the city of Edessa in 1026, and added it to his possessions. However, while Nasr al-Dawla annexed Edessa, the city was retaken by the Byzantine Empire in 1031. In 1032, he sent an army of 5000 horsemen, under the command of the his general Bal, to re-take the town from Arab tribes supported by Byzantium. The Kurdish commander Bal took the city and killed the Arab tribal chief, then he wrote to his lord Nasr al-Dawla asking for reinforcements "if you want to save your Lordship on Kertastan (Kurdistan)". The long rule of Nasr al-Dawla was the apogee of Marwanids' power. He built a new citadel on a hill of Mayyafariqin where stood the Church of Virgin. He built bridges and public baths. He restored the observatory. Some libraries were placed in the mosques of Mayyafarikin and Amed. He invited well-known scholars, historians and poets to his royal court, among them Ibn al-Athir, ‘Abd Allah al-Kazaruni (poet), al-Tihami. He sheltered political refugees as the future Abbassid caliph Al-Muqtadi (1075–1099). Nasr al-Dawla b. Marwan, in 1054, had to acknowledge as his own liege Toghrul Beg the Seljuk, who ruled on the largest part of Jazira, but he kept his territories. This fine period of peace and good feelings between Kurds and Syriacs was rich in creations in the field of cultural life. It was dense for trade, active for arts and crafts, impressive in short. Nasr al-Dawla b. Marwan left in Diyarbakır monumental inscriptions that show the artistic brightness of his reign.

After Nasr al-Dawla's death, the Marwanids' power declined. His second son, Nizam, succeeded him and ruled until 1079, then followed his son Nasir al-Dawla Mansur. The end of the Marwanid dynasty drifted along, in a scent of treason. Ibn Jahir, a former vizir, left the Diyarbakır, and went to Baghdad. There, he convinced the sultan Malik Shah I (1072–1092), a grand-nephew of Toghrul Beg, and the famous vizir Nizam al-Mulk, to allow him to assault Mayyafarikin. When the city was taken, Ibn Jahir took off the great treasures that belonged to the Marwanids and detained them greedily for himself. Afterwards, the Diyarbakır fell almost entirely under the direct rule of Seljukids. The last emir, Nasir al-Dawla Mansur, kept only the city of Jazirat Ibn ‘Umar (present-day Cizre in south-eastern Turkey).

Mary
Mary (in Arabic, Maryam).  Mother of Jesus.  The name occurs frequently in the Qur’an in the combination (‘Isa) ibn Maryam – “(Jesus) son of Mary,” no father being mentioned, because, according to Muslim tradition, Jesus had no earthly father.  Maryam is much venerated in Muslim folk tradition, often along with Fatima.

Maryam is the Islamic name given to Mary, the mother of Jesus -- the mother of ‘Isa.  Maryam is frequently mentioned in the Qur’an.  In Sura 19:20ff., which is named “Mary,” the doctrine of the Virgin Birth is mentioned, as also in Sura 66:12 and 3:47.  The Qur’an also knows a version of the Immaculate Conception {Sura 3:36} , where Mary and Jesus are kept clean from Satan’s (Iblis’s) touch, giving rise to the Islamic doctrine of impeccability -- the ‘isma.  The Qur’an also attributes to some a belief that Mary was part of the Trinity {Sura 5:116} , which has led Western scholars to search for Marist sects in pre-Islamic Arabia.  Two different genealogies of Mary are known to the commentators, as are numerous stories found in the apocryphal Gospels, such as the Palm Tree story.

Mary, the mother of Jesus, is considered one of the most righteous women in the Islamic tradition. She is the only woman mentioned by name in the Qur'an and her name is mentioned more times than it is in the New Testament.

According to the Qur'an, Jesus (called 'Isa in Arabic) was born miraculously by the will of God without a father. His mother is regarded as a chaste and virtuous woman and is a highly respected figure in Islam. The Qur'an states that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth, but that neither Mary nor her son were divine.

In the Qur'an, no other woman is given more attention than Mary. The nineteenth sura of the Qur'an is named after her and is, to some extent, about her life. Of the Qur'an's 114 suras, she is among only eight people who have a sura named after them. In Islam, she is generally referred to as Maryam, Umm Isa (Mary, the mother of Jesus). For Muslims she is a symbol of submission to God and piety.

Mary is one of the most highly-regarded women in Islam; there are several verses in the Qur'an praising her and confirming that she was an extremely chaste and pious woman. Other righteous women in Islam, include: Asiyah, foster mother of the Prophet Musa (Moses); Khadijah, a wife of Prophet Muhammad; and Fatimah, a daughter of Muhammad.

According to the Qur'an, Mary's father was 'Imran. The name which in Arabic means prosperity, not only links Mary to her direct father but also to her ancestor, Amram the father of Moses and of Aaron, whence the description "sister of Aaron" which the Qur'an likewise uses, is to show that Mary is of the same race as the two brother prophets, as commentators such as Al-Ghazzali have stated.

Mary's mother, although unnamed, is identified as Hannah in Arabic or Saint Anne in Judeo-Christian tradition.

Mary's story in the Qur'an, begins while she is still in her mother's womb. The mother of Mary said, "O my Lord! I do dedicate into Thee what is in my womb for Thy special service: So accept this of me: For Thou hearest and knowest all things." (Qur'an 3:35). When Mary was delivered, she said, "O my Lord! Behold! I am delivered of a female child!" (Qur'an 3:36). She had expected her baby to be a boy who would grow up to be a scholar or religious leader. Qur'an 3:36 continues "...and God knew best what she brought forth — 'And no wise is the male like the female. I have named her Maryam, and I commend her and her offspring to Thy protection from Satan, the Rejected.'"

In Qur'an 3:37, God states that He accepted Mary as her mother had asked. She was assigned into the care of a priest named Zacharias (Zakariya). "Every time that he entered (her) Mihrab to see her, he found her supplied with sustenance. He said, 'O Mary! Whence (comes) this to you?' She said, 'From God. For God provides sustenance to whom He pleases without measure.'" (Qur'an 3:37).

The word Mihrab which first appears in Mary's story is the reference to a place in the Temple of Jerusalem, which according to the Muslim tradition, was reserved for Mary. The association of ideas between Mary and Mihrab (prayer niche) in mosques in commonly found among Muslims. In many mosques the verse of Zachariah and Mary is inscribed above the Mihrab, notably in Hagia Sophia and Sultan Ahmet Mosque in Istanbul, which remained dedicated to Saint Mary even after the Byzantine era and under the Ottoman Empire.

Zacharias in Islam is not only regarded as a priest but as a prophet as well. Although his wife was barren and he was very old, God blesses Zacharias and his wife Elizabeth with John. John is known as "John the Baptist" in the Bible and as Yahya in the Qur'an.

The Qur'an states that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth, but describes Mary and her son not as divine but as "honored servants" (21.26). To deny Jesus divinity, he is compared in Q 3:59 with Adam who was created with neither father nor mother. The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Suras 3 and 19 of the Qur'an wherein it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin.

After conceiving Jesus, Mary went away with the baby to a distant place (Qur'an 19:22). "And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm-tree. She cried (in her anguish): 'Ah! would that I had died before this! would that I had been a thing forgotten!'" (Qur'an 19:23).

The miracle of the palm-tree which is mentioned in the Qur'an but not in the Bible is an important miracle for Muslims. In this narration, Mary finds herself behind a withered palm-tree in the wilderness and she wishes if she had died before this. A voice came from beneath her "shake the trunk of the palm-tree toward thee, thou wilt cause ripe dates to fall upon thee" (Quran 19:25) The miracle is counterpart to the miracle of the Mihrab. In both instances, Mary is nourished by Allah, however, in the first case, the fruits come without her having to do anything other than remember God in the prayer-niche. Whereas, in the second case, she must have participated in the miracle by shaking the tree. Commentators on the Quran have stated the two miracles are miracles of pure grace and active faith. It is also stated that Mary's substance is the substance of original sanctity. According to some Muslims, Mary personifies clemency and Mercy, therefore, she is the human manifestation of the Basmalah.

Joseph, the magi, and the manger are not mentioned in the Qur'anic narration. In the Qur'an and Hadith, Allah was Mary's only Provider. Muslims do not accept the virgin birth of Jesus as evidence of Jesus being God.

The Qur'an states: "The similitude of Jesus before God is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: 'Be.' And he was." (Qur'an 3:59).

(Remember) When the angels said O Mary! God Gives thee Good News of a son through a Word from Him! His name shall be the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, honored in this world and in the next, and of those who Are Granted Nearness to God! (3.45)

    And he shall speak to the people in the cradle, and when of middle age, and he shall be of The Righteous (3.46)

    She said My Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me ? He Said, That is as it shall be. God Creates what He Pleases. When He decrees a thing He says to it "Be" and it is! (3.47)

The Qur'an also declares that one of the reasons (amongst many listed) for the punishments of God upon the People of the Book – "God has sealed their hearts" (4.155) – is for their "uttering a monstrous lie against Mary" (4.156).

Mary's names and titles in Islam include:

    * Qānitah: "of the Qanitin". Mary is so called in Surah of the Banning (Quran 66:12). The Arabic term implies the meaning, not only of constant submission to Allah, but also absorption in prayer and invocation, meanings that coincides with the image of Mary spending her childhood in the Mihrab. In this way, Mary personifies prayer and contemplation in Islam.
    * Siddiqah: “She who accepts as true” or “She who has faith”. Mary is called Siddiqah twice in the Quran. (5:73-75 62:12). The term has also been translated “She who believes sincerely totally”.
    * Sājidah: “She who prostrates to Allah in worship”. The Quran states: “O Mary! Worship your Lord devoutly: prostrate yourself”(Quran 3:43). While in Sujud, a Muslim is to praise Allah and glorify him. In this motion, which Muslims believe to be derived from Marian nature, hands, knees and the forehead touch the ground together.
    * Rāki’ah: “She who bows down to Allah in worship”. The Quran states: “O Mary! Bow down in prayer with those men who bow down.” The command was repeated by angels only to Mary, according to the Muslim view. Ruku' in Muslim prayer Salat has been derived from Mary’s practice.
    * Tāhirah: “She who was purified” (Quran 3:42). According to a Hadith, the devil did not touch Mary when she was born, therefore she did not cry. (Nisai 4:331)
    * Mustafia: “She who was chosen”. The Quran states: “O Mary! Allah has chosen you and purified you and again he has chosen you above all women of all nations of the worlds” (Quran 3:42). According to the interpretations, the first election is intrinsic. Allah has chosen the virgin in herself and for herself, and the second time he has chosen her in regard to the world and for a divine plan.
    * Nur: "Light". In the Verse of Light, Mary is called Nur (Light) and Umm Nur (the mother of one who was Light). The Verse of Light also contains the virginal symbols of the crystal, the star, the blessed olive tree, and oil, which according to Muslims, refer to the purity of Mary. It is one of the most important passages, both from the generally Islamic as well as from the specifically Maryami point of view, along with the tree verses that follow it.
    * Waliyah: "Saint". There is among Muslims a divergence of opinion concerning whether Mary was a Nabiyah (Prophetess) or a Waliah (Saint). Most Muslims believe that prophecy is reserved for men only and that Mary was simply a saint. Even those who believe Mary was a prophetess agree that she had no law-giving function.
    * Sa’imah: “She who fasts”. Mary is reported to fast one half of a year in Muslim tradition. The Quran says God told Mary “And if any man sees you, say, I have vowed a fast to the Most Gracious, and this day I will enter into no talk with any human being.”
    * Ma’suma: “She who never sinned”. According to the Quran, Allah protected Mary from Satan.(Quran 3:35-36)

Many other names of Mary can be found in various other books and religious collections. In Hadith, she has been referred to by names such as Batul and Adhraa (Ascetic Virgin), Masturah ("veiled") and Marhumah ("enveloped in Allah's Mercy").




Maryam see Mary
Mother of Jesus see Mary


Maryam Jameelah
Maryam Jameelah (b. May 23, 1934). Revivalist ideologist.  She was born Margaret Marcus to a Jewish family in New Rochelle, New York.  She grew up in a secular environment, but at the age of nineteen, while a student at New York University she developed a keen interest in religion.  Unable to find spiritual guidance in her immediate environment, she looked to other faiths.  Her search brought her into contact with an array of spiritual orders, religious cults, and world religions.  She became acquainted with Islam around 1954.  She was then greatly impressed by Marmaduke Pickthall’s The Meaning of the Glorious Koran and by the works of Muhammad Asad, himself a convert from Judaism to Islam.  Maryam Jameelah cites Asad’s The Road to Mecca and Islam at Crossroads as critical influences on her decision to become a Muslim.  Through her readings on Islam she developed a bond with that religion and soon became its spokesperson, defending Muslim beliefs against Western criticism and championing such Muslim causes as that of the Palestinians.  Her views created much tension in her personal life, but she continued to pursue her cause. 

On May 24, 1961, she embraced Islam in New York, and soon after began to write for the Muslim Digest of Durban, South Africa.  Her articles outlined a pristine view of Islam and sought to establish the truth of the religion through debates with its critics.  Through this journal she became acquainted with the works of Mawlana Sayyid Abu al-A’la Mawdudi I (d. 1979), the founder and leader of the Jama‘at-i Islami (Islamic Party) of Pakistan, who was also a contributor to the journal.  Maryam Jameelah was impressed by Mawdudi’s views and began to correspond with him.  Their letters between 1960 and 1962, later published in a volume entitled Correspondences between Maulana Mawdoodi and Maryam Jameelah, discussed a variety of issues from the discourse between Islam and the West to Maryam Jameelah’s personal spiritual concerns. 

Maryam Jameelah’s attachment to Islam created great difficulties for her in her family and community. Her anguish was relayed to Mawdudi, who advised her to move to Pakistan and live among Muslims.  Maryam Jameelah traveled to Pakistan in 1962 and joined the household of Mawlana Mawdudi in Lahore.  She soon married a member of the Jama‘at-i Islami, Muhammad Yusuf Khan, as his second wife.  After settling in Pakistan she wrote an impressive number of books, which adumbrated Jama‘at-i Islami’s ideology in a systematic fashion.  Although she never formally joined the party, she became one of its chief ideologists. 

Maryam Jameelah was particularly concerned with the debate between Islam and the West, an important, albeit not central, aspect of Mawdudi’s thought.  She sharpened the focus of the Muslim polemic against the West and laid out the revivalist critique of Christianity, Judaism, and secular Western thought in methodical fashion.  Her works often fall into the trap of citing the worst moral and ethical transgressions of the West -- usually isolated incidents -- to condemn the West in its entirety.  Maryam Jameelah’s significance, however, does not lie in the force of her observations, but in the manner in which she articulates an internally consistent paradigm for revivalism’s rejection of the West.  In this regard, her influence far exceeds the boundaries of Jama‘at-i Islami and has been important in the development of revivalist thought across the Muslim world.

The logic of her discursive approach led Maryam Jameelah away from revivalism and Jama‘at-i Islami.  Increasingly aware of revivalism’s own borrowing from the West, she distanced herself from the revivalist exegesis and even criticized her mentor Mawdudi for his assimilation of modern concepts into Jama‘at-Islami’s ideology.  Her writings in later years embodied this change in orientation and reveal the influence of traditional Islam.

Some of the books Maryam Jameelah has written are:

    * Islam and Modernism
    * Westernization and Human Welfare
    * Three Great Islamic Movements in the Arab World of the Recent Past
    * The Generation Gap - Its Causes and Consequences


Jameelah, Maryam see Maryam Jameelah
Margaret Marcus see Maryam Jameelah
Marcus, Margaret see Maryam Jameelah


al-Marzubani, Abu ‘Ubayd Allah
al-Marzubani, Abu ‘Ubayd Allah (Abu ‘Ubayd Allah al-Marzubani) (910-994).  One of the most versatile and prolific of Arab scholars in the vast field of belles-lettres.
Abu ‘Ubayd Allah al-Marzubani see al-Marzubani, Abu ‘Ubayd Allah


Masalit
Masalit.  The Masalit live in the most remote and unknown areas of Sudan and Chad.  While great trading empires were conquered on their east and west, Dar (“home of”) Masalit won its independence and maintained it into the twentieth century.  The people developed a reputation for fiercely protecting their autonomy.  They produced everything they needed, had their own language and customs and were capable of defending their borders. 

The Masalit are Muslims, and the idiom of Islam dominates political and social life and values.  By the seventeenth century, Islam had been introduced to Dar Fur by itinerant holy men, and they probably also came to Dar Masalit.  One observer in 1874 noted “an unusual number of faqis” (clerics).  However, Islam had made considerable accommodation to pre-Islamic practices such as divination and ceremonies to avoid locusts or to cause rains.

Sultan Ismail brought more orthodox teachings, including Mahdist reforms, to Dar Masalit such as observation of the Ramadan fast, prohibition of alcoholic beverages and certain pre-Islamic ceremonies and the reduction of bridewealth.  While Islamic practice in Dar Masalit was not reformed in his lifetime, Sultan Ismail began a process of increasing orthodoxy.

The Masalit are a nation of people of Darfur in western Sudan and Wadai in eastern Chad. They speak Masalit, a Nilo-Saharan language of the Maba group.

Between 1884 and 1921 they established a state called Dar Masalit.

The Masalit are well-known for their Muslim piety.


Masarjawayh
Masarjawayh (Masarjis) (Masargoye).  Persian physician of the eighth century.  He is one of the few physicians from the Umayyad period who are known by name, and probably the first to translate a medical book into Arabic.
Masarjis see Masarjawayh
Masargove see Masarjawayh


Masihi al-Jurjani, al-
Masihi al-Jurjani, al- (Abu Sahl Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Jurjani). Christian physician from Gurgan, Iran, who was one of the teachers of Ibn Sina during the eleventh century.

Abu Sahl Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Jurjani was a Christian physician, from Gorgan, east of the Caspian Sea, in Iran.

He was the teacher of Ibn Sina (Avicenna). He wrote an encyclopedic treatise on medicine of one hundred chapters (al-mā'a fi-l-sanā'a al-tabi'iyyah, which is one of the earliest Arabic works of its kind and may have been in some respects the model of Ibn Sina's Qanun.

He wrote other treatises on measles, on the plague, on the pulse, etc.

He died in a dust storm in the deserts of Khwarezmia in 999-1000.

Abu Sahl Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Jurjani see Masihi al-Jurjani, al-


Masjumi
Masjumi (Madjelis Sjuro Muslimin Indonesia) (Masyumi Party) (Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia) (Council of Indonesian Muslim Associations). Founded in 1943 as a federation of Indonesian non-political Islamic organizations.  In November 1945, it was transformed into a political party.  At first, the Masjumi was a party uniting the Indonesian Islamic organizations, but in 1947 the Partai Sarekat Islam Indonesia (PSII) left it, as did the Nahdatul Ulama in 1952.  The departure of these two traditionalist groups turned the Masjumi into a party for modernist Indonesian Muslims and earned it considerable support outside Java.  Among its principal leaders were Natsir, Surkiman, Roem, and Sjafruddin Prawiranegara.   In the 1955 general election, Masjumi received 20.9 percent of the vote.  The party was banned in 1960 after it refused to condemn those of its leaders who had joined the Pemerintah Revolusioner Republik Indonesia (PRRI)/Permesta rebellion.

The Masyumi Party was a major Islamic political party in Indonesia during the Liberal Democracy Era in Indonesia. It was banned in 1960 by President Sukarno for supporting the PRRI rebellion.

Masyumi was the name given to an organization established by the occupying Japanese in 1943 in an attempt to control Islam in Indonesia. Following the Indonesian Declaration of Independence, on November 7, 1945, a new organization called Masyumi was formed. In less than a year, it became the largest political party in Indonesia. It included the Islamic organizations such as Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah. During the period of liberal democracy era, Masyumi members had seats in the People's Representative Council and the party supplied prime ministers such as Muhammad Natsir and Burhanuddin Harahap.

Masyumi came in second in the 1955 election. It won 7,903,886 votes, representing 20.9% of the popular vote, resulting in 57 seats in parliament. Masyumi was popular in modernist Islamic regions such as West Sumatra, Jakarta, and Aceh. 51.3% of Masyumi's vote came from Java, but Masyumi was the dominant party for regions outside Java, and it established itself as the leading party for the one third of people living outside Java. In Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi, Masyumi gained a significant share of the vote. In Sumatra, 42.8% voted for Masyumi. while the figure for Kalimantan was 32%, and for Sulawesi 33.9%.

In 1958, some Masyumi members joined the PRRI rebellion against Sukarno. As a result, in 1960 Masyumi (and the Socialist Party) were banned.

Following the banning, Masyumi members and followers established the Crescent Star Family (Indonesian: Keluarga Bulan Bintang) to campaign for Islamic shariah law and teachings. An attempt was made to re-establish the party following the transition to the New Order, but this was not permitted. After the fall of Suharto in 1998, another attempt was made to revive the party name, but eventually Masyumi followers and others established the Crescent Star Party, which contested the legislative elections in 1999, 2004 and 2009.

Madjelis Sjuro Muslimin Indonesia see Masjumi
Masyumi Party see Masjumi
Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia see Masjumi
Council of Indonesian Muslim Associations see Masjumi


Maslama ibn ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
Maslama ibn ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik) (d. 738).  Son of the Umayyad Caliph ‘Abd al-Malik and one of the most imposing Umayyad generals.  His siege of Constantinople in 716 to 718 earned him lasting fame.  The failure of the siege was caused mainly by supply difficulties, the plague and the use of Greek fire by the Byzantines against the Arab fleet.

Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik was a son of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. In 709 he was appointed military governor of Armenia, a post he held until 715. As a general of the Caliphate's armies, he led the siege of Constantinople in 717. He was governor of Khurasan in 720. In the same year he defeated and killed the rebel Yazid ibn al-Muhallab. He was again appointed governor of Armenia in 731, following the disastrous defeat of al-Djarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami. He may have been the Arab commander at the Battle of Mosul in that year.

Maslamah was instrumental in the fortification and expansion of the town of Derbent during his tenure in the Caucasus. He led campaigns against the Khazar Khaganate in the early 730's, during which he penetrated the Gate of the Alans and sacked Balanjar. He fell out of favor again and was replaced by Marwan ibn Muhammad. He died in 738.



Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik see Maslama ibn ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan


Maslama ibn Mukhallad
Maslama ibn Mukhallad (d. 682). Companion of the Prophet who took part in the conquest of Egypt.


Masmuda
Masmuda (in plural form, Masamida).  One of the principal Berber ethnic groups forming a branch of the Baranis.  They were converted to Islam in the seventh century by ‘Uqba ibn Nafi’.

The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja.

The Masmuda settled large parts of Morocco, and were largely sedentary and practiced agriculture. The residence of the Masmuda aristocracy was Agmat in the High Atlas. From the 10th century, the Berber tribes of the Sanhaja and Zanata groups invaded the lands of the Masmuda, followed from the 12th century onwards by Arab Bedouins.

Ibn Tumart united the Masmuda tribes at the beginning of the 12th century and founded the Almohad movement, which subsequently unified the whole of the Maghreb and Andalusia. After the downfall of the Almohads, however, the particularism of the Masmuda peoples prevailed once more, as a result of which they lost their political significance. Remnants of the Masmuda survive in the form of the Hhaha of Morocco, and the Shleuh in the High Atlas.
Masamida see Masmuda


Masmughan
Masmughan.  Zoroastrian dynasty in the region of Damawand (Dunbawand) to the north of Rayy.  The name means “The Great One of the Magians.”  Their principality was not conquered by the Arabs until 758.

 
The Great One of the Magians see Masmughan.


Massa
Massa (in Berber, Masst).  Name of a small Berber tribe of the Sus of Morocco, and of the place where it is settled, some 30 miles south of Agadir.  According to legend, it was on the shore there that ‘Uqba ibn Nafi’ drove his steed into the waves of the Atlantic Ocean, calling God to witness that there were no more lands to conquer in the west.
Masst see Massa


Mas‘udi, Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali al-
Mas‘udi, Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali al- (Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali al-Mas‘udi) (Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Mas'udi) (b. 893/896, Baghdad - d. September 956, Cairo, Egypt).  One of the most eminent Arab writers.  His works comprise geography, history, heresiography, comparativism, general philosophy, science, Muslim law and its principles.  He also wrote the history of ‘Ali, of the Family of the Prophet, of the Twelver Shi‘a, and of the Imamate. 

Born in Baghdad in the late ninth century, he spent twenty years travelling in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and parts of eastern Africa.  In 915/916, he journeyed to Madagascar, apparently visiting Zanzibar and various east African towns along the way.  However, the places he named cannot be identified today.  His description of Islamic culture in east Africa helped to give rise to the false notion that there was a centralized Zanj Empire. 

Al-Mas‘udi never visited West Africa.  However, he recorded other travellers’ accounts of the western Sudan.  His writings contain an important description of the “silent barter” through which traders of the ancient Ghana Empire obtained gold from their southern neighbors.

The best known among the 36 titles listed are a great history of the world, which is said to have filled 30 volumes; a work containing generalities regarding the universe and information of a historical nature on non-Muslim peoples (including the pre-Islamic Arabs) and the history of Islam, from the Prophet up to the caliphate of the ‘Abbasid Caliph al-Mut‘i li-‘llah, and finally, a work called Warning and Revision, which is basically an overall review.

Al-Mas‘udi traveled extensively, gathering enormous quantities of information on poorly known lands. His work helped set the tone for future Arabic scholarship.  He has been called the Herodotus of the Arabs.

Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Husain al-Mas‘udi came from an Arab family in Baghdad which claimed descent from one of the early Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, though some sources erroneously describe him as of North African origin.  His educational background is unknown, but his career reflects a catholic and almost insatiable thirst for knowledge.

By the standards of the tenth century, al-Mas‘udi was a peerless traveler and explorer, whose feats surpass those of Marco Polo more than three centuries later.  He began his travels as a young man, visiting Iran, including the cities of Kerman and Istakhr, around 915.  Subsequently, he fell in with a group of merchants bound for India and Ceylon.  Later, al-Mas‘udi seems to have found his way as far as southern China.  On his return from China, he made a reconnaisance of the East African coast as far as Madagascar, then visited Oman and other parts of southern Arabia.  There followed a visit to Iran, particularly the region of the Elburz Mountains, south of the Caspian Sea.

On yet another journey, al-Mas‘udi visited the Levant.  He examined various ruins in Antioch and reported on relics in the possession of a Christian church in Tiberias in 943.  Two years later, he returned to Syria, settling there for most of the remainder of his life.   From Syria, he paid several extended visits to Egypt.  Although it is uncertain whether he traveled there, al-Mas‘udi’s writing also demonstrates detailed knowledge of the lands of North Africa.

Al-Mas‘udi’s written work is characterized by his adherence to the rationalist Mutazilite school of Islamic thought.  The Mutazilites, who applied logical analysis to fundamental questions of human existence and religious law, combined an intellectual disposition with a preference for vocal activism. 

Regrettably, much of al-Mas‘udi’s literary work has been lost, so that in modern times it is known only by the references of others and from his own summaries in extant material.  Only a single volume remains extant, for example, out of perhaps thirty that constituted al-Mas‘udi’s monumental attempt to write a history of the world.  The surviving volume covers the myth of creation and geographical background as well as the legendary history of early Egypt.

The major work of al-Mas‘udi which has survived is Muruj al-Dhahab wa-Ma‘adin al-Jawhar (947 -- partial translation as Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems [1841]).  Apparently, there was a considerably larger, revised 956 edition of this work, but it is not extant.  Al-Mas‘udi laid out his philosophy of history and the natural world in Kitab al-Tanbih w’al-Ishraf (book of indications and revisions), a summary of his life’s work.

In his books, al-Mas‘udi presents a remarkable variety of information.  His material on peoples and conditions on the periphery of the Islamic world is of vital importance, as modern knowledge of this aspect of Islamic history is extremely scanty.  For modern scholars, however, al-Mas‘udi’s style and critical commentary leave something to be desired.  His presentation jumps from subject to subject, without following a consistent system.  Al-Mas‘udi made little attempt to distinguish among his sources or to obtain original versions of information, as, for example, the eleventh century geographer/historian al-Biruni was careful to do.  He treated a sailor’s anecdote or a folktale in the same way as he did a map or a manuscript.

On the other hand, al-Mas‘udi’s uncritical approach doubtless led to the preservation of material, much of it useful, which would not have found its way into the work of a more conventional scholar.  Al-Mas ‘udi expressed none of the condescension one sometimes finds in other writings of the time for non-Muslim authorities.  He displays as much enthusiasm for learning what lay outside Islam as he does for Islamic teaching.  The broad scope of his investigations was without precedent.

The juxtaposition of sources of varying authority in al-Masudi’s work is enough to raise skeptical questions in the minds of modern readers.  In discussing the geography of the Indian Ocean, for example, he first presents the “official” version, heavily dependent on erroneous ideas borrowed from Ptolemy and other Hellenistic writers, who regarded the sea as largely landlocked and accessible only through a few narrow entrances.  Al-Mas‘udi then lays out contrary -- and more accurate -- information about the Indian Ocean drawn from sailors’ tales and from his own experience, indicative of the vastness of the ocean and the cultural diversity of the countries surrounding it.  He also presents the orthodox notion of his time that the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea were connected, followed by an account of his own explorations which revealedthat they are separate bodies of water.

Al-Mas‘udi departed from established form in presenting his information in a loosely topical manner, organized around ethnic groups, dynasties, and the reigns of important rulers instead of the year-by-year chronicle method typical of the time.  In this respect, he anticipated the famed fourteenth century Islamic historian Ibn Khaldun, whose work, in turn, represents a major step toward modern historical scholarship.

A noteworthy feature of al-Mas‘udi’s observations of nature is his attention to geologic forces which shape the environment.  Although his comments sprang mostly from intuition, they were often prescient of modern scientific theory.  He wrote, for example, of physical forces changing what once was seabed into dry land and of the nature of volcanic activity.

Al-Mas‘udi deserves to be included among the major Arabic historians, despite the loss of most of his work.  His career marks the introduction of a new intellectual curiosity in Islam, one that sought knowledge for its own sake and paid scant attention to the boundaries between Islam and the rest of the world.  His fascination with geographical elements in history and human affairs would be taken up by many later Arabic scholars.

Western historians have suggested that al-Mas‘udi’s intellectual disposition reflects the development of Hellenistic influence in Islamic scholarship, foreshadowing the pervasive Greek character in non-theological Islamic writing in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, particularly in Mediterranean lands.  He has been conpared both to Herodotus of the fifth century B.C. T. And to the first century of the Christian calendar.  Roman geographer/historian Pliny the Elder.  Lack of knowledge about al-Mas‘udi’s training and education makes such judgments problematic, but there can be no doubt that his work is in many respects prototypical of what was to come in Islam.


Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali al-Mas‘udi see Mas‘udi, Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali al-


Mas‘ud ibn Mahmud
Mas‘ud ibn Mahmud (b. 998).  Sultan of the Ghaznavid dynasty (r. 1030-1040).  He was the eldest son of Mahmud ibn Sebuktigin.  While he was concentrating on India, the Oghuz, led by the Saljuq family, made systematic raids into Khurasan and defeated the Ghaznavid sultan in 1040.


Mas‘ud ibn Mawdud ibn Zangi, ‘Izz al-Din
Mas‘ud ibn Mawdud ibn Zangi, ‘Izz al-Din (‘Izz al-Din Mas‘ud ibn Mawdud ibn Zangi).  Zangid atabeg of Mosul (1180-1193).  His public career was entangled from beginning to end with that of his great adversary Saladin.


Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad ibn Malik-Shah
Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad ibn Malik-Shah.   Great Saljuq in Iraq and western Persia (r.1134-1152).  The fortunes of the Saljuq dynasty were regarded as going into steep decline on Mas‘ud’s death.


Mas‘ud-i Sa‘d-i Salman
Mas‘ud-i Sa‘d-i Salman (c. 1046-c.1121).  Persian poet of Lahore.  He is famous for the powerful and eloquent laments he wrote from his various places of incarceration, which lasted some eighteen years.

Mas'ud-i Sa'd-i Salmān was an 11th century Persian poet of the Ghaznavid empire who is known as the prisoner poet. He was born in Lahore to wealthy parents from Hamadan, present-day Iran. His father Sa'd bin Salman was a great Persian ambassador who was sent to India by Ghaznavids.  Masud was born there and he was highly learned in astrology, hippology, calligraphy, literature and also in Arabic and Indian languages.

In 1085, due to politics in the royal court, he was thrown into prison. He was released in 1096, when he returned to Lahore and was appointed governor of Chalander. Two years later, continued political changes resulted in a prison stay of 8 years, with his release in 1106. The last years of his life was spent in high favor with most of his best poems having been written in the Nay prison.

Mas'ud was also known as a great Persian poet. Most of his works are written in the qasideh form. He has some poems in other styles such as quatrian and qet'eh. In the qasideh he followed the famous Unsuri. During one of his prison stays, he wrote the Tristia, a celebrated work of Persian poetry. He had relationships with some of the Persian poets like: Othman Mokhtari , Abul-faraj Runi, Sanai.


Mas‘ud, Sayyid Salar
Mas‘ud, Sayyid Salar (Sayyid Salar Mas‘ud) (Ghazi Mian) (Ghazi Miyan) (Ghazi Saiyyed Salar Masud).  Legendary hero and martyr of the original Muslim expansion into the Gangetic plain of India.  He is alleged to have been born at Ajmer, Rajasthan, India, in 1014 and to have been killed in battle in 1033.  His tomb in Bahraic, in northern Uttar Pradesh, is the center of a wide spread cult.

Ghazi Saiyyed Salar Masud was a famous Muslim general who conquered Awadh in 1030. Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud died during the campaign in Awadh and at his Mausoleum in Bahraich a yearly Urs is celebrated. Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud is also popularly known as Ghazi Mian or Ghazi Miyan. The Urs takes place at the end of May each year at Bahraich Dargah.

Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud was grandson of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi. Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud was appointed as governor of Multan by his uncle Sultan Masud. Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud wanted to conquer and establish his kingdom in northern India. In the year 1031, with an army of over one hundred thousand troops, Salar Masud crossed the Hindu Kush ranges and entered the Punjab plains. The king of Lahore Anand Pal Shahi made an unsuccessful attempt to check Masud's advance. Anand Pal was helped by Rai Arjun the king of Sialkot. After defeating Anand Pal, Masud moved towards Rajputana and Malwa, where he defeated king Mahipal Tomar.

Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud's invading army was much larger and was fully equipped with and provided by the imperial strength of Afghanistan. The aim of Salar Masud's invasion was to establish the rule of the Ghaznavid Empire over northern India. After their victories across the Indo-gangetic plains, the Sultan Saiyyad Salar Masud, established his court at Bahraich near Ayodhya. They made their camp into a makeshift headquarters with the aim of eventually making it their permanent capital.

At this juncture a rare event took place. For the first time a major pan-Indian alliance of seventeen kings of North India was formed. This coalition force which far outnumbered the large army of Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud laid siege to the camp. We have an account of this war from an Islamic scholar Sheikh Abdur Rehman Chishti who in his book Meer-ul-Masuri has given a vivid description of this exceptional war. He writes that Salar Masud reached Baharaich in 1033. By then the united Indian kings had gathered a massive force to face Salar Masud. As was their practice, before the beginning of hostilities, the Indian kings sent a messenger to Salar Masud that this land belongs to their people and he should return back to their kingdom. Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud sent a reply that all land belonged to God and he could settle wherever he pleased.

Consequently, Masud's huge army was besieged by the even greater Indian army and no side gave the other any quarter. Gradually through the hostilities, Salar Masud saw the unsuccessful end of his expedition. This bitter and bloody war was fought in the month of June 1033. In this furious war, no side took any prisoners and it ended only with the martyrs from both sides. Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud's body was taken and then beheaded. Later his body was allowed to be buried at Bahraich.

The battle of Bahraich ended on June 14, 1033. At the gory end, nearly the entire army of Salar Masud along with their commander lay dead. The survivors of Salar Masud's army were allowed to settle in Bahraich. During his military career and his many campaigns his strong religious and warrior code of ethics, exemplary character and deep seated and uncompromising spiritual values directed him to offer protection to non-combatants, women and children. Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud's Mausoleum is located at Bahraich and a yearly Urs is celebrated.


Sayyid Salar Mas‘ud see Mas‘ud, Sayyid Salar
Ghazi Miyan see Mas‘ud, Sayyid Salar
Ghazi Saiyyed Salar Masud see Mas‘ud, Sayyid Salar
Ghazi Mian see Mas‘ud, Sayyid Salar


Mathamina, al-
Mathamina, al-.  Name given by the Yemenite historians to eight noble families of southern Arabia who, before Islam, enjoyed important political privileges, either in the kingdom of Himyar (from the end of the third century to 520), or under Abyssinian and Persian regimes.


Matmata
Matmata (Metmata). Name of a large Berber people in Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco.  There were also some Matmata groups among the Berber tribes who went across to Spain at different periods.


Metmata see Matmata


Matraqci, Nasuh al-Silahi
Matraqci, Nasuh al-Silahi (Nasuh al-Silahi Matraqci).  Sixteenth century horseman, mathematician, historian, calligrapher, painter, and inventor of some new forms of the game of matraq, a contest with a stick, cudgel or rapier for training and knight-errantry.  Matraqci translated al-Tabari’s History of Prophets and Kings into Turkish and illustrated a Turkish supplement to this translation, which includes the history of the Ottomans from the beginning to the year 1551.
Nasuh al-Silahi Matraqci see Matraqci, Nasuh al-Silahi

Mat Salleh
Mat Salleh (Datu Muhammad Salleh) (Mohammed Salleh) (d. January 31, 1900).  Most important leader to resist the spreading power of the British North Borneo Chartered Company in nineteenth-century Sabah.  British sources mostly characterize him as a treacherous rebel waging a reactionary battle against company sponsored law and order; a revisionist interpretation portrays him as a traditional Malayo-Muslim leader of popular resistance, perhaps even a nationalist hero, against a company rule imposed by force.  A part-Sulu, part-Bajau chief from northwestern Sabah, Mat Salleh clashed repeatedly, beginning in 1894, with company representatives over their attempts to collect taxes.  In 1897, his forces raided the British settlement at Gaya Island.  Conflict erupted again, and Mat Salleh was killed at Tambunan in 1900.  Ironically, his activities resulted ultimately in an increased company presence on the west coast.

The Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now the Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. It was instigated by Datu Muhammad Salleh, better known as Mat Salleh.

During the late 19th century, North Borneo was under the administration of the British North Borneo Company. The Company was trying to transform North Borneo into a producer of various agricultural products, especially tobacco. As the Company introduced new cash crops, North Borneo underwent inevitable economic and social changes.

The Company tried hard to preserve local cultures, but certain local practices had to be regulated to ensure the Company's control. For instance, slavery was abolished. More disruptive changes brought about by the Company were the introduction of taxes and the requirement for firearms and boat licenses. Many locals disagreed with the new rulings.

One of the more influential dissenting local chiefs was Mat Salleh. He was born in Inanam, North Borneo, the son of the leader of the Inanam, and became a governor at Sugud River. A member of the Bajau and Suluk tribes, he married a Sulu princess.

In 1895, Mat Salleh entered into a long running dispute with the Company. Salleh had taken issue with the Company imposing new rules on the Sugud River region, but the Company ignored his complaints. For its part, the Company was unhappy with Mat Salleh collecting taxes from the local populace without Company approval. Soon after the dispute began, the Company burned down Salleh's village, and in 1897 he retaliated by razing the Company's harbor at Pulau Gaya. As the rebellion grew, Salleh ordered a fort to be constructed in Ranau. The Company tried to capture the fort but met with heavy resistance and resorted to setting fire to it instead. After skirmishes near Pulau Gaya, Inanam and Menggatal, this phase of the conflict ended with Mat Salleh's forces retreating into North Borneo hitherland.

In due course, the Company offered Mat Salleh peace, and Mat Salleh agreed. Unfortunately for him, this truce with the British so outraged his own people that he was forced to flee to Tambunan. The British granted Mat Salleh control of Tambunan, and he built a new fort there. Despite the peace treaty, the Company decided to take Tambunan back from Mat Salleh in 1899. Mat Salleh refused to co-operate and fighting

recommenced. On January 31, 1900, he was shot dead in Kampung Toboh, Tambunan. His death left the rebellion movement leaderless and effectively ended it.

Datu Muhammad Salleh see Mat Salleh
Mohammed Salleh see Mat Salleh
Salleh, Datu Muhammad see Mat Salleh
Salleh, Mat see Mat Salleh
Salleh, Mohammed see Mat Salleh


Matta ibn Yunus al-Qunna’i
Matta ibn Yunus al-Qunna’i (d. 940).  Nestorian Christian who translated Aristotle and commented on him.  His Arabic translations were all made from Syriac versions.  Al-Farabi was among his pupils.


Mattos, Joaquin de
Mattos, Joaquin de.  Black slave leader and hero in the unsuccessful rebellion of Hausa slaves in Bahia in 1835.  His loyalty to his comrades was so great that during his trial he refused even to admit an acquaintance with his closest associates.  Like all the rebels, Mattos was a devout Muslim.


Maturidi, Abu Mansur Muhammad al-
Maturidi, Abu Mansur Muhammad al- (Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Maturidi) (Muhammad Abu Mansur al-Maturidi) (853/873  -  944).  Hanafi theologian of Maturid in Samarkand, jurist and Qur’an commentator.  He was a native of Samarkand and founder of a school of theology comparable to, but less well known than, that of al-Ashari.  Both lived before kalam became the dominant theological method of Islam.  Al-Maturidi’s views were so closely identified with those of the pivotal shari‘a expert, Abu Hanifa, that the latter’s name often eclipsed even the memory of the former. 

Al-Maturidi’s doctrinal school which later came to be considered one of the two orthodox Sunni schools which later came to be considered one of the two orthodox Sunni schools of theology (in Arabic, maturidiyya), the other being the school of al-Ash‘ari.  He argued against the positions of the Mu‘tazila, of the Karramiyya, of the Imami Shi‘a, and of the Isma‘ilis.  He also refuted the views of Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, Manichaeans, Bardesanites and Marcionites.

Muhammad Abu Mansur al-Maturidi was a Persian Muslim theologian, and a scholar of Islamic jurisprudence and Qur'anic exegesis. Al-Maturidi is one of the pioneers of Islamic Jurisprudence and his two works are considered to be authoritative on the subject. He had a "high standing" among the scholars of his time and region.

Al-Maturidi was born in Maturid near Samarqand. He was educated in Islamic theology, Qur'anic exegesis, and Islamic jurisprudence. He was a Muslim theologian and his background is claimed as Persian. The area of Samarkand was at his time under the Samanid Persian dynasty and its urban population were predominately Persian while the surrounding steppes was largely populated by Turkic-speaking nomads.

When al-Maturidi was growing up there was an emerging reaction against some schools within Islam, notably Mu'tazilis, Qarmati, and Shi'a. The Sunni scholars were following Abu Hanifa. Al-Maturidi with other two preeminent scholars wrote especially on the creed of Islam and elaborated Abu Hanifa's doctrine, the other two being Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari in Iraq, and Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi in Egypt.

While Al-Ash'ari and Al-Tahawi were Sunni together with Al-Maturidi, they constructed their own theologies diverging slightly from Abu Hanifa's school. Al-Ash'ari, enunciated that God creates the individual’s power (qudra), will, and the actual act giving way to a fatalist school of theology, which was later put in a consolidated form by Al Ghazali. Al Maturidi, followed in Abu Hanifa's footsteps, and presented the "notion that God was the creator of man’s acts, although man possessed his own capacity and will to act". Al Maturidi and Al-Ash'ari also separated from each other on the issue of the attributes of God, as well as some other minor issues.

Later, with the impact of Persianate states such as Great Seljuq Empire and Turkish states such as the Ottoman Empire, the Maturidi school spread to greater areas where the Hanafi school of law is prevalent, such as Afghanistan, Central Asia, India, Pakistan and Turkey.

Maturidi had an immense knowledge of dualist beliefs (Sanawiyya) and of other old Persian religions. His "Kitäb al-tawhld" in this way became a primary source for modern researchers with its rich materials about Iranian Manicheanism (Mâniyya), a group of Brahmans (Barähima), and some controversial personalities such as Ibn al-Rawandi, Muhammad al Warraq, and Muhammad b. Shabib.

The writings of al-Maturidi include:

    * Kitab Al Tawhid ('Book of Monotheism')
    * Kitab Radd Awa'il al-Adilla, a refutation of a Mu'tazili book
    * Radd al-Tahdhib fi al-Jadal, another refutation of a Mu'tazili book
    * Kitab Bayan Awham al-Mu'tazila ('Book of Exposition of the Errors of Mu'tazila)
    * Kitab Ta'wilat al-Qur'an ('Book of the Interpretations of the Quran')
    * Kitab al-Maqalat
    * Ma'akhidh al-Shara'i` in Usul al-Fiqh
    * Al-Jadal fi Usul al-Fiqh
    * Radd al-Usul al-Khamsa, a refutation of Abu Muhammad al-Bahili's exposition of the Five Principles of the Mu'tazila
    * Radd al-Imama, a refutation of the Shi`i conception of the office of Imam;
    * Al-Radd `ala Usul al-Qaramita
    * Radd Wa`id al-Fussaq, a refutation of the Mu`tazili doctrine that all grave sinners will be eternally in hell fire.




Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Maturidi see Maturidi, Abu Mansur Muhammad al-
Muhammad Abu Mansur al-Maturidi see Maturidi, Abu Mansur Muhammad al-


Maududi
Maududi (Maulana Abu’l Ala Maududi) (Abu al-Ala Maududi) (Syed Abul A'ala Maududi) (Maudoodi) (Modudi) (Mawdudi) (Molana) (Sayyid Abu’l-A‘la’ Mawdudi) (Shaikh Syed Abul A'ala Mawdudi) (September 25, 1903 - September 22, 1979).  Pakistani writer, orator, and politician who was born in India.  He began his public career when he was only 24 years old.  He published a collection of essays entitled Al-Jihad fi al-Islam (“Jihad in Islam”) that caused a stir among Islamic scholars.  In 1933, he took over as editor of a monthly magazine, Tarjuman al-Quran.  The magazine offered an interpretation of the Qur’an that emphasized that Islam as revealed to Muhammad, its prophet, did not draw a distinction between the spiritual and the temporal worlds.  In 1941, Maududi decided to enter politics by establishing the Jamaat-e-Islami (the Party of Islam).  For six years, however, from 1941 to 1947, Maududi and the Jamaat-e Islami opposed Muhammad Ali Jinnah, his All-India Muslim League, and their demand for the creation of Pakistan, a homeland for the Muslim population of British India.

Maududi’s opposition to the idea of Pakistan was based on the belief that nation states could not be reconciled with the concept of the Muslim umma (community) that included all Muslims.  The umma could not be divided by borders that separated nation states.  Once Pakistan was born, Maududi decided to move to the new country and established himself and the Jamaat-e-Islami in Lahore.  Once in Pakistan, he turned his attention to creating an Islamic state in the country created by Jinnah and the Muslim League.  Maududi’s program consisted of two parts.  First, he wished to define strictly the meaning of being a Muslim, excluding all those who deviated even slightly from subscribing to what he defined as the basic tenets of Islam.  Second, he wanted Pakistan to adopt an Islamic political system rather than the systems borrowed from the West. 

Maududi’s first serious confrontation with the state of Pakistan came in 1953 when he led a movement against the Ahmadiyya community.  The movement turned violent and martial law had to be imposed before law and order was restored in the country.  A military court sentenced Maududi to death but the sentence was later reduced.  Maududi had to wait more than 20 years before the Ahmadiyyas were declared to be non-Muslims.  This action was taken in 1974 by the administration of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.  It was during the early years of the regime of President Zia ul-Haq that Maududi’s views had the greatest impact on Pakistan.  Zia made several attempts to introduce Islam into the country’s political and economic structures. Although Zia was not successful in the area of politics, he introduced a number of Islamic financial instruments.  These included the imposition of taxes such as zakat and ushr.

Maududi’s influence was not limited to Pakistan.  He influenced the radical Egyptian Islamist Sayyid Qutb, who in turn influenced such ideological heirs as Osama Bin Laden; Omar Abdel Rahman, the blind sheik who was convicted of bombing the World Trade Center in 1993; and Ayman al-Zawahiri, head of the radical Egypt-based movement, Islamic Jihad.  Maududi’s core concept is based on the traditional idea of Islam as a comprehensive way of life -- the total obedience of society and government to the authority of traditional Islamic law.

Maududi envisioned a theocratic state in which God is recognized as the supreme civil ruler and in which religious authorities rule as God’s representatives.  This idea stands in direct opposition to a basic tenet of the United States system of government: the separation of church and state and it is this idea which stands as a source of conflict between the United States and Islamic fundamentalists around the world.

Maududi’s writings also stressed the evils created by imperialism and international capitalism.  He argued that the universal acceptance of Islam would eliminate poverty, injustice, and the oppression of the masses.  His admirers consider him the most systematic thinker of modern Islam, while his critics dismiss him as an impractical romantic.  Nonetheless, he has an international reputation in the Muslim world, and revivalists have a particular respect for his thought.


Maulana Abu’l Ala Maududi see Maududi
Abu al-Ala Maududi see Maududi
Syed Abul A'ala Maududi see Maududi
Maudoodi see Maududi
Modudi see Maududi
Mawdudi see Maududi


Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al-
Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al- (Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi) (Alboacen) (Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi) (972-1058).  One of the most famous thinkers in political science in the Middle Ages.  He was also a great sociologist, jurist and mohaddith.  He served as Chief Justice at Baghdad and as an ambassador of the Abbasid Caliph to several important and powerful Muslim states.  Al-Mawardi is most famous for his book Al-Havi on jurisprudence.  His full name was Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Habib al-Mawardi. 

Al-Mawardi was born in 972 at Basra.  He received his early education in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) from the famous jurist Abu al-Wahid al-Simari.  Subsequently, he went to Baghdad for advanced studies and studied under Sheikh Abd Al-Hamid and Sheikh Abdallah al-Baqi.  He was an exceptional student and became proficient in ethics, political science, jurisprudence, and literature.

He began his career as a qadi -- a judge.  He quickly moved up due to his exceptional abilities and served as the Chief Justice of Abbasid Caliphate at Baghdad.  Caliph al-Qasim bi AmrAllah appointed him as an ambassador to Buwahid and Seljuk Sultanates.  He was well liked in this capacity and received rich gifts and tributes by most Sultans.  He was highly respected and valued even after Buwahids took over Baghdad.  Al-Mawardi died in 1058.

Al-Mawardi made original contributions in political science and sociology.  In these fields, he wrote three monumental works: Kitab al-Ahkam al-Sultania, Qanun al-Wazarah, and Kitab Nasihat al-Mulk.  Al-Mawardi formulated the principles of political science.  His books deal with duties of the Caliphs, the chief minister, the cabinet, and the responsibility of and relationship between the government and citizens.  He has discussed the affairs of state in both peace and war.

Al-Mawardi elaborated on guidelines for the election of the Caliph and qualities of voters, including the requirement of purity of character and intellectual capability.  Al-Mawardi is the author and supporter of the Doctrine of Necessity.  He was against unlimited power delegated to provincial governors.  His books Al-Ahkam al-Sultania and Qanun al-Wazarah have been translated into several languages.

Kitab Aadab al-Dunya wa al-Din was al-Mawardi’s masterpiece in ethics.  It is still a very popular book in some Islamic countries. 

Al-Mawardi’s contribution to the science of sociology has been monumental.  His work formed the foundation which was further developed by Ibn Khaldun.

The works of al-Mawardi include:

    * Al-Ahkam al-Sultania w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya (The Ordinances of Government)
    * Qanun al-Wazarah (Laws regarding the Ministers)
    * Kitab Nasihat al-Mulk (The Book of Sincere Advice to Rulers)
    * Kitab Aadab al-Dunya w'al-Din (The Ethics of Religion and of this World)



Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi see Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al-
Alboacen see Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan al-


Mawdud ibn ‘Imad al-Din Zangi, Qutb al-Din
Mawdud ibn ‘Imad al-Din Zangi, Qutb al-Din (Qutb al-Din Mawdud ibn ‘Imad al-Din Zangi) (Izz ad-Din Mas'ud I bin Mawdud) (1130-1193).  Atabeg of Mosul (1149-1169) and youngest brother of Nur al-Din Mahmud Zangi of Damascus and Aleppo.  In the writings of western chroniclers of the Crusades the name of Mawdud is transcribed as Malducus, Maldutus or Manduit.

Izz ad-Din Mas'ud I bin Mawdud was a Zangi emir of Mosul. He was the brother of emir Saif ad-Din Ghazi II, and the leader of his armies. When his brother died 1180 he became the governor of Aleppo. When As-Salih Ismail al-Malik got sick, he indicated in his will that Izz ad-Din Mas'ud should succeed him. When he died in 1181, Izz ad-Din rushed to Aleppo, fearing that Salahu'd-Din would try to conquer it.

When he arrived to Aleppo, he got into its Castle, took over all the money and the gold and married the mother of As-Salih Ismail al-Malik. He knew he could not keep Aleppo and Mosul under his governance, as the eyes of Salahu'd-Din were on Aleppo, so he reached an agreement with his brother Imad ad-Din Zengi II the governor of Sinjar to exchange Sinjar with Aleppo. In 1182, Izz ad-Din became the governor of Sinjar. In 1193, he went back to Mosul where he got sick and died. He was succeeded by his son Nur ad-Din Arslan Shah I.

Qutb al-Din Mawdud ibn ‘Imad al-Din Zangi see Mawdud ibn ‘Imad al-Din Zangi, Qutb al-Din
Izz ad-Din Mas'ud I bin Mawdud see Mawdud ibn ‘Imad al-Din Zangi, Qutb al-Din


Mawdud ibn Mas‘ud, Shihab al-Din wa’l-Dawla
Mawdud ibn Mas‘ud, Shihab al-Din wa’l-Dawla (Shihab al-Din wa’l-Dawla Mawdud ibn Mas‘ud) (b. c. 1010).  Ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty (r.1041-1050).  He had to combat the Saljuqs in eastern Khurasan and Sistan.
Shihab al-Din wa’l-Dawla Mawdud ibn Mas‘ud see Mawdud ibn Mas‘ud, Shihab al-Din wa’l-Dawla


Mawdudi, Sayyid Abu’l-A‘la’
Mawdudi, Sayyid Abu’l-A‘la’.  See Maududi.


Mawlawiyah
Mawlawiyah (Mawlawiyya)(in Turkish, Mewlewiyye or Mevlevi) (Mawlawi Order)  (Mevlevilik) (Mevleviye) (Mowlawīya).  Sufi order which takes its name from the Mawlana “Our Master,” the sobriquet of Jalal al-Din Rumi.

Mawlawiyah was a Turkish Sufi order which was known to Europe as the “Whirling Dervishes” in recognition of its distinctive meditation ritual.  It derives its name from Jalal al-Din Rumi, known as Mawlana (Mevlana in Turkish, meaning “Our Master,” whose life and writings had a profound influence on the development and ritual of the order.

Rumi was born in 1207 in the Central Asian city of Balkh, where his father Baha’ Walad (d. 1231) was a religious scholar and Sufi master of some renown.  The uncertain religious and political situation under the Khwarazm-shahs forced them to leave for Anatolia in 1219, and Baha’ Walad and his family eventually settled in the Seljuk capital of Konya at the invitation of ‘Ala’ al-Din Kayqubad.  Baha’ Walad was given a prominent appointment as a legal scholar and preacher, a position that Jalal al-Din inherited after his father’s death.  It was from his lengthy residence in Anatolia (Rum) that Mawlana Jalal al-Din came to be known as Rumi.

There can be little doubt that Rumi was familiar with Sufism from childhood.  Nevertheless, most sources insist that his formal Sufi training began in 1232 with the arrival in Konya of Burhan al-Din al-Tirmidhi, a disciple of Baha’ Walad.  Rumi remained his disciple until Burhan al-Din’s death nine years later.

The defining moment in Rumi’s life occurred in 1244 with the arrival of an enigmatic wandering mystic named Shams al-Din (commonly referred to as Shams-i Tabrizi).  Until this time Rumi’s public persona had been defined by his role as a legal scholar and judge, with little mention of his participation in any mystical activities.  He now began to devote himself entirely to the company of Shams-i Tabrizi, whom he identified as the ideal medium for gaining access to mystical knowledge of God.

Rumi’s infatuation with Shams-i Tabrizi was a source of jealousy (and probably also embarrassment) to his family and students, who apparently forced Shams-i Tabrizi to leave Konya after about two years.  Rumi rushed after him and convinced him to return, but soon after that Shams vanished forever, in all likelihhood murdered by Rumi’s students with the connivance of both his son, Sultan Walad (d. 1312) and his principal disciple Husam al-Din Chalabi (d. 1283).  Following Shams’ disappearance, Rumi withdrew from public life and devoted himself entirely to the guidance of Sufi disciples.  He also began to compose exquisite and profuse poetry, the bulk of which is contained in two works -- the Masnavi-yi ma‘navi (approximately 26,000 verses) and the Divan-i Shams-i Tabrizi (approximately 40,000 verses).  The Masnavi, written at the request of Husam al-Din Chalabi, is a didactic work in six books that rapidly gained extreme popularity in the Persian and Turkish speaking world.  It has been widely translated and commented on and has been used for prognostication, as a source of mystical inspiration, and as a religious text by countless individuals as well as by several mystical organizations such as the Iranian Khaksars.  It is on the basis of this work, which is the central mystical text of the Mawlawiyah, that Rumi has become the best-known Islamic mystical poet.

It is probable that a Sufi order gathered around Rumi during his lifetime.  One of his early biographers, Shams al-Din Ahmad al-Aflaki al-‘Arifi, mentions an assembly room (jama ‘at khanah) attached to Rumi’s madrasah where learned conversations and musical concerts were held.  Although Rumi had already come to be known as Mawlana, it is doubtful that his followers were called the Mawlawiyah at this early date. In his account of Konya, Ibn Battutah refers to them as the Jalaliyah (after Jalal al-Din).  Rumi was succeeded by Salah al-Din Zarkub, who had originally been a disciple of Burhan al-Din al-Tirmidhi and who succeeded Shams-i Tabrizi as a vessel in which Rumi contemplated God.  Zarkub was followed by Rumi’s disciple Husam al-Din Chalabi and finally by Rumi’s son Sultan Walad, although for the first seven years after Husam al-Din’s death the latter was under the care of a guardian, Karim al-Din ibn Bektimur.  After Sultan Walad the leadership of the Mawlawiyah was almost invariably held by a descendant of Rumi.

The two most distinctive features of the Mawlawiyah are their process of initiation through a lengthy orientation rather than the trials typical of other Sufi orders, and the importance they give to sama’ (audition) as a form of meditation.  Some elements of the sama’ are traceable to Rumi, although major features continued to be added until the time of ‘Adil Chalabi (d. 1460), a great-grandson of the Sultan Walad.  The only significant changes since that time concern the occasion and frequency of the sama’; these occurred under the reign of the Ottoman sultan Selim III (r. 1789-1807) and again in the period after the Turkish religious reforms of 1925.

The sama’ of the Mawlawiyah is carried out in a wood-floored circular room called a sama’  khanah (Turkish, semahane).  The room is normally surrounded by galleries for guests and a separate one for the musicians.  Before the sama’ begins, the officiating Sufi (called meydanci dede) places a skin, marking the seat of the shaykh, at the opposite end of the room from the qiblah.  He then gave an order for the call to prayer to be sounded, after which the shaykh entered the room followed by the participants (referred to as sama’ zan).  After performing their ritual prayers the participants gathered around the seated shaykh to listen to hymnsand readings from the Masnavi, which are accompanied by music.  The shaykh then recites the “prayer of the skin” (pust duasi).

Following this prayer all participants, including the shaykh and the meydanci dede, go through a complex and choreographed series of salutations.  Accompanied by a simple beat from the musicians, the participants walk in a circle up to the skin with their arms folded under their cloaks (khirqah).  On reaching the skin, each participant bows in salutation to the person in front of him, passes the skin while facing it and stepping over the diameter of the circle extending from the skin to the qiblah, turns around to face the person behind him, performs the identical salute, takes three steps back, turns around to face forward, and continues walking in a circle.  Many outside observers appear to have been impressed by the sight of the sema zens wearing tall caps and black cloaks over white tunics, two of them facing each other across the skin and the remainder walking in a circle with their eyes lowered and heads bowed.  After completing the round of salutations the shaykh sat on his skin and the sama’ itself begins, comprising several cycles or rounds (dawra), in which each sema zen extends his arms to the side with the right palm facing upward and the left downward and whirls counter-clockwise, using his left foot as a pivot.

The form of the sama’ is imbued with mystical meaning for the Mawlawiyah: the upturned right hand symbolizes the mystic’s receipt of divine grace, while the downturned left hand implies that what is received from God is passed on to humanity.  Thus the sema zen represents a conduit whereby God showers blessings upon the planet.  A similar representation of the relationship between the celestial and the terrestrial is accorded to the hall itself, with the right half symbolizing the descent from God to human beings in the physical realm, and the left symbolizing ascent from the physical state to mystical union with God in the spiritual realm.
The Mawlawiyah had been an order of courtly art and culture since Rumi’s day and had always encouraged and nurtured court poets and musicians.  As such, it is in contrast to more popular orders such as the Bektashis, which have been more in tune with the needs and aspirations of the Anatolian populace.  This distinction was exploited by the later Ottoman sultans, who favored the Sunni and courtly Mawlawiyah against the more populist and predominantly Shi‘a Bektashis favored by the Janissaries.  By the beginning of the nineteenth century, it became a tradition for the head of the Mawlawiyah to gird the imperial sword on the new sultan.

The importance of the Mawlawiyah to the development of Ottoman culture cannot be overemphasized.  It has had a definitive impact on the development of art and music, and luminaries such as the court poets Nef‘i (d. 1635) and Seyh Galib (d. 1799), and composers such as Iti (d. 1712) and Zeka’i (d. 1897) were all Mawlawis.  In fact, the Mawlawiyah is so closely identified with Ottoman Turkish culture that it has enjoyed almost no success in non-Turkish societies.  The only exceptions are certain cities in non-Turkish regions of the former Ottoman Empire, such as Damascus, Tripoli, Homs, Jerusalem, and Beirut in the Middle East, and a larger number of cities in Greece, Bosnia, and other parts of the Balkans.  However, these were all towns with significant Turkish populations, and only the center in Beirut is known to have remained active into the latter half of the twentieth century.  In contrast, the founder of the order still enjoys widespread fame and reverence rivaled by only one or two other Sufi figures.


Mawlawiyya see Mawlawiyah
Mewlewiyye see Mawlawiyah
Mevlevi see Mawlawiyah
Mawlawi Order see Mawlawiyah
Mevlevilik see Mawlawiyah
Mowlawiya see Mawlawiyah


Mawlay
Mawlay (Moulay) (“my lord”).  Honorific title borne by those Moroccan sultans of the Sharifian dynasties, the Sa‘dids and the Filalis, who were descended from ‘Ali’s son al-Hasan.  Those who were called Muhammad have the title of Sayyidi/Sidi.

Mawlay is an Arabic word which means “my lord” or “my master.”  In North Africa, it is frequently used in its literal sense, although the word is pronounced mulay.  Various honorific titles are derived from the term mawla in combination with pronominal or adjectival suffixes.  Mawla is in turn derived from the Arabic verb waliyah, “to be close to” or “to be connected with something or someone,” and by extension to be proximate in terms of power or authority.  In the Qur’an, in the hadith, and in early Islamic history, mawla had several meanings.  First, it was employed in the sense of “tutor,” “preceptor,” “trustee,” or “helper.” Second, it denoted “lord” or “master,” and thus God is referred to as “Mawlana” or “our lord.”  Here the term is synonymous with sayyid.  Finally, it can signify “client,” “affiliate,” or “freedman,” thus designating a relationship of inferiority or dependence.  In the early Islamic period, mawali (the plural of mawla) referred at first to non-Arab converts to Islam who became clients of one of the Arab Muslim tribes and were regarded as socially inferior.  In the ‘Abbasid period, however, the term more commonly designated freedmen, although it had passed out of general use by the tenth century.

As a title or honorific, mawlay has been and is still used in various regions of the Muslim world.  In the Maghrib and Andalusia, it was applied to saints or Sufis, as well as to various ruling houses that based their legitimacy upon descent from the prophet Muhammad.  The Hafsid dynasty of Tunisia (1207-1574) employed this title, as did high dignitaries both secular and religious.  Originally in the Moroccan context, mawlay was a title conferred upon all those belonging to the shurafa’ (descendants of Muhammad).  Since the sixteenth century, however, it has been employed as a prenominal title applied to the sultans of the two Moroccan Sharifi dynasties -- the Sa‘dis (c. 1510-1654) and the ‘Alawis (c.1660- ); both dynasties have claimed descent from Muhammad through al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali.

In the Sufi sense, mawlay is related to the terms wali and wilayah; the former is often inadequately rendered as “saint,” although a better definition would stress the holy person as being close to God or God’s protégé, while the latter signifies something approximating sanctity.  In both Sufism and Shi‘ism mawla can be understood as a spiritual protector or patron as well as a client.  The great thirteenth century Persian Sufi and poet Jalal al-Din Rumi is still referred to as Mawlana, “our master,” because of his immense piety and uncommon spirituality.  In the Turco-Iranian world and in South Asian Islam, mawlana (or mawlawi) is a title in widespread use even in the 1990s and can denote Muslims of high religious status, such as Sufis or members of the ‘ulama’.  In the Indian subcontinent it is applied to scholars of the Islamic religious sciences -- meaning once again “my tutor” or “my lord” -- or to saints, implying spiritual lordship and hence protection.




Moulay see Mawlay
My Lord see Mawlay

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