Sunday, June 28, 2015

A00064 - Tariq Aziz, Top Aide to Saddam Hussein

Tariq Aziz, also spelled Ṭāriq ʿAzīz, original name Mikhail Yuhanna   (b. April 28, 1936, Qaḍā Talkīf, Iraq — d. June 5, 2015, Al-Nāṣiriyyah, Iraq), was an Iraqi public official who served as foreign minister (1983–91) and deputy prime minister (1979–2003) in the Ba'thist government of Saddam Hussein.

Tariq Aziz was born Mikhail Yuhanna to a Chaldean Catholic family in northern Iraq. He studied English at Baghdad University and worked as a journalist after earning his degree. Beginning in 1958, he wrote for a series of Iraqi newspapers, and he became involved with the Baʿth Party. He changed his name to Tariq Aziz (Arabic for “glorious past”) to appeal to the party’s predominantly Muslim membership, and he became acquainted with Saddam Hussein. Aziz worked for the Baʿthist press in Syria in the mid-1960s, a period that saw the party’s fortunes rise and fall frequently, and he was named chief editor of Al-Thawra, the party’s official newspaper, in 1969.

As the Baʿth Party secured its hold on power in the early 1970s, Aziz held a number of government positions. In 1972 he was made a member of the Revolutionary Command Council’s General Affairs Bureau, and two years later he was named Minister of Information. He held that post until 1977. In that year he was also elected as a Baʿth Party regional leader. On July 16, 1979, Saddam, who had functioned as Iraq’s de facto leader during the final years of President Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr's rule, became President of Iraq, and Aziz was appointed Deputy Prime Minister. Aziz would remain in that position for almost a quarter century, notable as the only Christian in Saddam’s inner circle of advisers. In April 1980 he survived an assassination attempt, reportedly orchestrated by Iran, that was later presented by Saddam as a casus belli for the Iran-Iraq War. 

In January 1983 Aziz was made Minister of Foreign Affairs, and it was in this role that the bespectacled cigar-smoking diplomat served as Iraq’s face to the Western world. He won United States support for the war against Iran, and, after meeting with United States President Ronald Reagan in 1984, he secured the restoration of diplomatic relations between Iraq and the United States. Skillfully appealing to both sides in the Cold War, he also strengthened military and economic ties with the Soviet Union. With Iraq weakened by eight years of war, Saddam eyed the oil revenues of nearby Kuwait. Throughout 1989–90, as military conflict loomed, Aziz was dispatched to seek assurances of nonintervention from the United States and Arab countries. They were slow to materialize, and support for Iraq—even among its traditional allies—evaporated shortly after its August 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait. During the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, Aziz appealed the Iraqi case to the United Nations, and his fluency in English made him a regular guest on Western news programs.

After the Persian Gulf War, which saw the Iraqi military routed and driven from Kuwait, Iraq found itself isolated diplomatically and economically, and Aziz was relieved of his foreign affairs portfolio. He remained Deputy Prime Minister, however, and in this role he spent much of the next decade portraying Iraq as the victim of American designs on the Middle East. He played a much smaller role in the diplomatic maneuvering that preceded the beginning of the Iraq War in 2003, and he surrendered to United States forces shortly after the fall of Baghdad. He remained in United States custody from April 2003 to July 2010, when he was transferred to Iraqi custody. Like other senior Baʿthists, Aziz was tried on numerous charges, and in October 2010 he was sentenced to death for crimes against Islamic political parties during Saddam’s reign. His death sentence was never carried out, however, and he died in prison in 2015.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

A00063 - Rohingya, a Muslim Minority of Burma

The Rohingya people are Indo-Aryan people from the Rakhine State, Burma, who speak the Rohingya language.  According to the Rohingyas, and some scholars, the Rohingya are indigenous to the Rakhine State, while other historians claim that they migrated to Burma from Bengal primarily during the period of British rule in Burma, and to a lesser extent, after the Burmese independence in 1948 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. 
Muslims have settled in the Rakhine State (also known as Arakan) since the 16th century, although the number of Muslim settlers before British rule is unclear.  After the first Anglo-Burmese War in 1826, the British annexed Arakan and encouraged migrants from Bengal to work as farm laborers. The Muslim population may have constituted 5% of Arakan's population by 1869, although estimates for earlier years give higher numbers. Successive British censuses of 1872 and 1911 recorded an increase in Muslim population from 58,255 to 178,647 in the Akyab District. During World War II, the Rakhine State massacre in 1942 involved communal violence between the British-armed V Force Rohingya recruits and Buddhist Rakhine people and the region became increasingly ethnically polarized.
In 1982, General Ne Win's government enacted the Burmese nationality law, which denied the Rohingya citizenship. Since the 1990s, the term "Rohingya" has increased in usage among Rohingya communities.
As of 2013, about 735,000 Rohingyas lived in Burma. They resided mainly in the northern Rakhine townships, where they formed 80–98% of the population. International media and human rights organizations have described Rohingyas as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world.