Thursday, March 21, 2013

Ghafuri - Gorontalese


Ghafuri
Ghafuri (Mejid Ghafuri) (1881-1934).  One of the best known national poets of the Bashkurt and Tatars.
Mejid Ghafuri see Ghafuri


Ghalib Dede
Ghalib Dede (1757-1799).  Turkish poet.  He was the last great exponent of the so-called diwan poetry.  He owes his great fame mainly to his allegorical romance of mystic love, called “Beauty and Love.”
Dede, Ghalib see Ghalib Dede


Ghalib ibn Sa‘sa‘a
Ghalib ibn Sa‘sa‘a.  Father of the seventh century poet al-Farazdaq, famous for his generosity.


Ghalib, Mirza Asad
Ghalib, Mirza Asad (Mirza Asad Ghalib) (Asadullah Khan Ghalib) (Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib) (Najm-ud-daulah Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan) (27 December 1797[1] — 15 February 1869)..  One of the greatest Muslim poets of the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent.  His letters reveal his keen interest in Persian grammar, lexicography, and stylistics.  He can be regarded as the father of modern Urdu prose and as the master of ghazal, a form of tightly structured lyric poetry derived from Arabic and Persian models that tends toward romantic or mystical reflection. 

Ghalib was born into an aristocratic family in Agra, India, and spent his childhood there.  Married at the early age of 13, Ghalib soon thereafter moved to Delhi which was then the center of a remarkable intellectual renaissance.  Ghalib became deeply attached to Delhi, and except for a period in Calcutta, remained there.

Ghalib had begun writing Urdu and Persian verse in his childhood.  Up to 1857, most of Ghalib’s work was in Persian, and he always declared his Urdu verse to be beneath all comparison with his Persian.  Nevertheless, it was Ghalib’s Urdu verse that has always been the basis of his poetic fame.  His Urdu verse is written in the strict classical forms, but bears Ghalib’s individual stamp. 

Ghalib’s verse is the first in classical Urdu poetry with an unmistakably modern tone.  Ghalib himself foresaw that it might not be fully appreciated until after his death.  Ghalib is today the one poet of Urdu whose popularity rivals that of Muhammad Iqbal. 

An unyielding adherence to his own values, a humorous distrust of dogmas, and an ability to look at himself through others’ eyes were expressed in his verse as in his life.  The well-known anecdotes of Ghalib recorded by his younger friend Hali in his Urdu work, Memoir of Ghalib, illuminate these qualities, and his cheerfully avowed laxity in religious matters.  Although Ghalib reverenced God and Muhammad, he never fulfilled the more stringent requirements of Islam.

Proud of his Turkish ancestry and perfect command of Persian, Ghalib strove to live the life of a Mughal aristocrat in Delhi, even though his only income came from a patchwork of small pensions.  For a time (1854-1857) he was court poet to Bahadur Shah Zafar.  In Persian, Ghalib wrote brilliantly in the qasida (eulogy), ghazal, and other classical genres. 

Ghalib was in Delhi throughout the revolt of 1857 and suffered deeply.  Many of his friends, both British and Indian, lost their lives.  To alleviate his loneliness, Ghalib began corresponding with his friends outside Delhi.  His frank, self-revelatory letters written in irresistably readable Urdu were later published, the first volume appearing just before his death.  Some commentators believe that the existence of these letters alone would have been sufficient to assure Ghalib’s fame.

Ghalib was a passionately intellectual poet, at times multifaceted and paradoxical, at others deceptively simple, but always ironic, humorous, and proud.  Ghalib gave the Urdu ghazal a markedly cerebral turn, together with a sort of baroque verbal complexity.  He alone among Urdu poets has inspired a whole tradition of explication and commentary.  He has had no successful imitators, but no later poet has entirely escaped his influence.  His ghazals are sung, read, and discussed throughout the Urdu speaking world.  

Mirza Asad Ghalib see Ghalib, Mirza Asad
Asadullah Khan Ghalib see Ghalib, Mirza Asad
Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib see Ghalib, Mirza Asad
Najm-ud-daulah Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan see Ghalib, Mirza Asad


Ghalzay
Ghalzay (Ghalji) (Ghilzai) (Ghilzay).  Large western Afghan Pashto-speaking tribe between Qandahar and Ghazna.

The Ghilzais (also known as Ghiljies or Ghaljis) are the largest Pashtun tribe located mainly in southeastern Afghanistan, between Kandahar and Ghazni and extending eastwards towards the Suleiman Mountains into Pakistan where they can also be found in large numbers. They are the most populous Pashtun tribe in Afghanistan. They are largely nomads and so are often referred to as Kuchis, along with other nomadic groups.

One theory states that the name of the Ghilzai is derived from Khaldjī, meaning either "Son of Mountain " or "swordsman."

Another etymological tradition, disavowed by the Ghilzai for obvious reasons, is that the name comes from the Pashtun word for thief, ghal, and zay, which means "son of." The folk story is that the ancestor of the Ghilzai was a prince who either abducted or eloped with the daughter of a local ruler. The couple are identified as either Shah Hussain, a Ghurid prince, and Bibi Mato, a granddaughter of Qays Abdar Rasheed, the putative ancestor of all Pashtuns, or Mokarram Shah Hussain from Ghor, and the daughter of a Pashtun noble.

The Ghilzais are an Afghan tribe but their origins are not certain. They are reputed to be descended at least in part from the Khalaj or Khilji Turks, who entered Afghanistan in the 10th century, as well as the numerous other invaders from Central Asia and the Middle East who have entered Afghanistan over the centuries. According to Elphinstone, the Khilji, "though Turks by descent...had so long settled among the Afghans that they had almost identified with that people."

During the 14th and 15th centuries, various Ghilzai Afghan dynasties took control over vast areas of India. The Lodi Dynasty ruled over the Delhi Sultanate during its last phase. The dynasty, founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi ruled from 1451 to 1526 when the last Lodi ruler, Ibrahim Lodi died. Other Ghilzai dynasties included the Suri Dynasty which was founded by the powerful medieval conqueror, Sher Shah, who soundly defeated the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Chausa on June 26, 1539 and again in Bilgram on May 17, 1540.

When the Hotaki tribe revolted against Safavid rule under the leadership of Mir Wais Hotak, the Ghilzai came into loggerheads with their western neighbors. Mir Wais Hotak, the leader of the Hotakis, had visited the Persian court and understood their military weaknesses. The Pashtun tribes rankled under the ruling Safavids because of their continued attempts to convert the Pashtun from Sunni to Shia Islam. Spawning Afghan nationalism, Mirwais succeeded in expelling the Safavid Georgian Governor of Kandahar and assumed the post for himself. His eldest son, Mahmud, effected a successful invasion of Persia which culminated in the conquest of Isfahan and the deposition of the Safawi Shah Soltan Hosein. Mahmud was then crowned Shah and ruled for a brief period before being deposed by his own clansmen. His nephew and successor reigned for a brief period of four years before being killed by fellow Afghans, while fleeing towards Kandahar. The Safawi dynasty was then restored in the person of Soltan Hosein's only surviving son, Tahmasp II.

In more recent times, three of the communist presidents were Ghilzais, Nur Muhammad Taraki (of the Taraki tribe), Hafizullah Amin (of the Kharoti tribe), and Mohammed Najibullah (of the Ahmadzai tribe). Although the Khalq was dominated mostly by Ghilzais, many of the Mujahideen were also Ghilzais in the Soviet war in Afghanistan, including Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Abdur Rasul Sayyaf.

In the 1990s, the Taliban leadership as well as rank and file were mostly composed of Ghilzais, along with Wazirs, which made them at odds with the Durrani tribe who are currently represented by the administration of President Hamid Karzai. The Ghilzais remain one of the largest and most prominent ethnic groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan and continue to enjoy considerable autonomy. Taliban leader Mohammed Omar also belongs to the Ghilzais.

The Ghilzais are concentrated in an area spanning Ghazni and Kalat-i-Ghilzai eastward into western Pakistan, but are predominantly a nomadic group unlike the Durranis who can be found in permanent settlements. They regularly cross over between the two countries often being exempted from customs due to the acceptance of their nomadic traditions by officials from both countries. Population estimates vary, but they are most likely around 20% to 25% of the population of Afghanistan and probably number over 9 million in Afghanistan alone with 4 million or more found in neighboring Pakistan. Most Ghilzais are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school and are often devout to their faith and also follow the Pashtun code of honor known as Pashtunwali. Most Ghilzais work as herdsmen as well as construction workers and in other jobs that allow them to travel. Often possessing great mechanical aptitude, the Ghilzai nonetheless have an extremely low literacy rate hovering below 10%.

Ghalji see Ghalzay
Ghilzay see Ghalzay
Ghiljie see Ghalzay
Ghilzai see Ghalzay


Ghanimat Kunjahi
Ghanimat Kunjahi (Muhammad Akram Ghanimat Kunjahi) (d. c. 1695).  Poet of Mughal India and an exponent of the “Indian style” in the Persian poetry of the sub-continent. 
Muhammad Akram Ghanimat Kunjahi see Ghanimat Kunjahi
Kunjahi, Muhammad Akram Ghanimat see Ghanimat Kunjahi


Ghaniya
Ghaniya (Banu Ghaniya).  Family of Sanhaja Berbers who, in the Almohad epoch, attempted to restore the Almoravids in North Africa. 

The Banu Ghaniya were distant relatives of the Almoravid dynasty, who appointed them as governors of the Balearic Islands in 1126. Following the collapse of the Almoravid power at the hand of the Almohads in the 1140s, the Banu Ghaniya continued to govern the Balearic Islands as independent emirs until about 1203, with a brief interruption in the 1180s. The Banu Ghaniya considered themselves as heirs of the Almoravids, and made a determined attempt to reconquer the Maghreb (and in particular Ifriqiya) from about 1180 onwards.

The Emirs of the Banu Ghaniya were:

    * Muhammad bin Ali bin Yusuf 1126-1165 (deposed)
    * Ishak bin Muhammad 1165-1183
    * Muhammad bin Ishak 1183-1184
    * Ali bin Ishak (known as Ali Ibn Ghaniya) 1184-1188; emir (by conquest) of Bougie (1185-1186), Algiers (1186), and Gafsa (1186-1187); warlord in Tunis 1187-1188
    * Yahya bin Ishak (known as Yahya Ibn Ghaniya) 1188-1202/1203, lord of war in Tunis 1188-1212

Banu Ghaniya see Ghaniya


Ghannushi
Ghannushi (Rashid al-Ghannushi) (b. 1941).  Islamic thinker, activist, and political leader in Tunisia.  Born to a peasant family in Tunisia, Rashid al-Ghannushi (often spelled Ghannoushi in Western literature) is the head of the Hizb al-Nahdah (Renaissance Party; formerly called Harakat al-Ittijah al-Islami, or Islamic Tendency Movement) and its chief theoretician.  Ghannushi grew up in a religious household and received his early education in the traditional Zaytunah schools.  In 1968, he received a degree in philosophy from the University of Damascus, Syria.  After a year in France, Ghannushi returned to Tunisia to become a secondary school philosophy teacher, and to establish – along with a group of young Tunisians increasingly at odds with the secular policies of Habib Bourguiba’s regime – an organized Islamic movement.  In 1981, he was sentenced to eleven years’ imprisonment for operating an unauthorized association.  He was released in 1984.  In 1987, he received a life term of forced labor but was discharged in 1988.  In the early 1990s Ghannushi was living in Europe as a political exile.

Ghannushi’s thought reflects a masterly understanding of western and Islamic philosophies and a genuine concern for reconciling the basic tenets of Islam with modernity and progress.  Ghannushi maintains non-traditional views on several issues.  He evaluates the West within the philosophical dimension of East-West dialogue.  Unlike Sayyid Qutb of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, he perceives the West as an ideological counterweight to Islamic doctrines.  The West is considered neither superior nor inferior to Islam.  Ghannushi sees coexistence and cooperation as the basis for the relationship between the two.  What sets the two worlds apart, however, is the difference in their perception of the fundamental concepts, or “effective ideas,” that move their cultures: the value and place of humanity in the universe.  Islam replaces the Western “man-god” formula with an Islamic one, “man the vice-regent of God on earth.”  Islam posits God as the ultimate value in the universe; it acknowledges the material and spiritual essences of humanity and attempts to reconcile them; and it directs human activities according to the divine regulations and concise values embodied in the shari‘a.  Ghannushi acknowledges that the system of democracy was a direct consequence of a particular Western experience.  He perceives democracy as a method of government and as a philosophy.  In his view, the Muslims’ problem is not with democratic institutions themselves, but with the secular and nationalistic values behind democracy.  Islamic democracy is distinguished from other systems by its moral content as derived from the shari‘a.  Ghannushi makes an important intellectual contribution by linking westernization with dictatorship.  He believes two common characteristics dominate the political systems of the Arab and larger Muslim world – westernization and dictatorship by ruling elites.  Because of its alienation from the masses, the westernized elite resorts to violent and repressive means to impose its foreign-inspired models and perpetuate its rule.

Ghannushi advocates an equal role for women in society and their right to education, work, choice of home and marriage, ownership of property, and political participation.  He considers the veil a matter of personal choice that is not to be imposed by the state.

Because he takes a gradualist stance in advocating social and political change, Ghannushi seeks to inspire a more vital cultural model.  He relies on orthodox ideas while in fact reinterpreting them to accommodate the modern issues of his society.  His ideas, though sometimes controversial, are paid much attention by Muslim activists and intellectuals.  Ghannushi’s intellectual contributions and political activism have gained him prominence within the contemporary Islamic movement. 
Rashid al-Ghannushi see Ghannushi
Ghannoushi  see Ghannushi


Gharid
Gharid (al-Gharid).  Nickname meaning “the fresh [voice]” which was given to Abu Zayd ‘Abd al-Malik, a renowned singer of the Umayyad era during the eighth century. 
al-Gharid see Gharid


Ghasil al-Mala’ika
Ghasil al-Mala’ika (d. 623).  Nickname of Hanzala ibn Abi ‘Amir, a Companion of the Prophet.  He was mortally wounded in the battle of Uhud. 
Hanzala ibn Abi ‘Amir see Ghasil al-Mala’ika
Mala'ika, Ghasil al- see Ghasil al-Mala’ika


Ghassanids
Ghassanids (in Arabic, Ghassan).  Division of the great Arabian tribal group al-Azd.  They settled in Syria, became Monophysite Christians and, at the eve of Islam, were allies of Byzantium against Sasanian Persia and against the Persia-oriented Lakhmids of al-Hira.  They were swept away by the Muslim conquest of Syria.  Some of the Arab Christian families of contemporary Southwest Asia trace their descent to the Ghassanids. 

The Ghassanids (al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") were a group of South Arabian Christian tribes that emigrated in the early 3rd century from Yemen to the Hauran in southern Syria, Jordan and the Holy Land where some intermarried with Hellenized Roman settlers and Greek-speaking Early Christian communities. The term Ghassān refers to the kingdom of the Ghassanids.

The Ghassanid emigration has been passed down in the rich oral tradition of southern Syria. It is said that the Ghassanids came from the city of Ma'rib in Yemen. There was a dam in this city, however one year there was so much rain that the dam was carried away by the ensuing flood. Thus the people there had to leave. The inhabitants emigrated seeking to live in less arid lands and became scattered far and wide. The emigrants were from the southern Arab tribe of Azd of the Kahlan branch of Qahtani tribes.

The king Jafna bin ‘Amr emigrated with his family and retinue north and settled in Hauran (south of Damascus). where the Ghassanid state was founded. There it is assumed that the Ghassanids adopted the religion of Christianity.

The Romans found a powerful ally in the new coming Arabs of Southern Syria. The Ghassanids were the buffer zone against the other Bedouins penetrating Roman territory. More accurately the kings can be described as phylarchs, native rulers of subject frontier states. The capital was at Jabiyah in the Golan Heights. Geographically, it occupied much of Syria, Mount Hermon (Lebanon), Jordan and Israel, and its authority extended via tribal alliances with other Azdi tribes all the way to the northern Hijaz as far south as Yathrib (Medina).

The Byzantine Empire was focused more on the East and a long war with the Persians was always their main concern. The Ghassanids maintained their rule as the guardian of trade routes, policed Bedouin tribes and was a source of troops for the Byzantine army. The Ghassanid king al-Harith ibn Jabalah (reigned 529–569) supported the Byzantines against Sassanid Persia and was given the title patricius in 529 by the emperor Justinian I. Al-Harith was a Miaphysite Christian; he helped to revive the Syrian Miaphysite (Jacobite) Church and supported Miaphysite development despite Orthodox Byzantium regarding it as heretical. Later Byzantine mistrust and persecution of such religious unorthodoxy brought down his successors, al-Mundhir (reigned 569-582) and Nu'man.

The Ghassanids, who had successfully opposed the Persian allied Lakhmids of al-Hirah (Southern Iraq and Northern Arabia), prospered economically and engaged in much religious and public building; they also patronised the arts and at one time entertained the poets Nabighah adh-Dhubyani and Hassan ibn Thabit at their courts.

The Ghassanids remained a Byzantine vassal state until its rulers were overthrown by the Muslims in the 7th century, following the Battle of Yarmuk in 636. It is believed by the Christian historians of that era that it was at this battle that some 12,000 Ghassanid Arabs defected to the Muslim side, a fact which is mentioned in Muslim history as well.

There are different opinions why Jabalah and his followers did not convert to Islam. All the opinions go along the general idea that the Ghassanids were not interested yet in giving up their status as the lords and nobility of Syria below the famous story of Jabalah return to the Byzantine's land.

Jabalah and about 30,000 Ghassanids left Syria and settled the new Byzantine borders.  They were never able to build another kingdom. However, they maintained a high status within the Byzantine empire and even produced the Nikephoros Byzantine dynasty that ruled the Byzantine empire from 802 to 813.

Nikephoros was credited for his efforts to revive the greatness of the Byzantine empire in the 9th century. He was the first Byzantine emperor to refuse paying the Tribute to the Caliph in Baghdad. However, he was betrayed by his own officers and later defeated in Phrygia, forcing him to make peace and focus on the Balkans.  During his era, he settled Byzantine loyal tribes from Anatolia in what is today northern Greece to prevent Bulgar incursions.

Ghassanid Christian families are found in Syria, Palestine, Jordan, and Lebanon. Many native Christians in these countries are Ghassanid Christians. Many have since emigrated to the Americas, Europe and the rest of the world due to persecution during the Ottoman period in the 19th century, the creation of Israel in 1948, with the Palestinian Nakba as a result and following the Lebanese civil war.

A listing of the Ghassanid kings follows:

   1. Jafnah I ibn `Amr (220-265)
   2. `Amr I ibn Jafnah (265-270)
   3. Tha'labah ibn Amr (270-287)
   4. al-Harith I ibn Th`alabah (287-307)
   5. Jabalah I ibn al-Harith I (307-317)
   6. al-Harith II ibn Jabalah "ibn Maria" (317-327)
   7. al-Mundhir I ibn al-Harith II (327-330) with
   8. al-Aiham ibn al-Harith II (327-330) and...
   9. al-Mundhir II ibn al-Harith II (327-340) and...
  10. al-Nu`man I ibn al-Harith II (327-342) and...
  11. `Amr II ibn al-Harith II (330-356) and...
  12. Jabalah II ibn al-Harith II (327-361)
  13. Jafnah II ibn al-Mundhir I (361-391) with...
  14. al-Nu`man II ibn al-Mundhir I (361-362)
  15. al-Nu`man III ibn 'Amr ibn al-Mundhir I (391-418)
  16. Jabalah III ibn al-Nu`man (418-434)
  17. al-Nu`man IV ibn al-Aiham (434-455) with...
  18. al-Harith III ibn al-Aiham (434-456) and...
  19. al-Nu`man V ibn al-Harith (434-453)
  20. al-Mundhir II ibn al-Nu`man (453-472) with...
  21. `Amr III ibn al-Nu`man (453-486) and...
  22. Hijr ibn al-Nu`man (453-465)
  23. al-Harith IV ibn Hijr (486-512)
  24. Jabalah IV ibn al-Harith (512-529)
  25. al- Amr IV ibn Machi(529)
  26. al-Harith V ibn Jabalah (529-569)
  27. al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith (569-581) with...
  28. Abu Kirab al-Nu`man ibn al-Harith (570-582)
  29. al-Nu`man VI ibn al-Mundhir (582-583)
  30. al-Harith VI ibn al-Harith (583)
  31. al-Nu'man VII ibn al-Harith Abu Kirab (583- ?)
  32. al-Aiham ibn Jabalah (? -614)
  33. al-Mundhir IV ibn Jabalah (614- ?)
  34. Sharahil ibn Jabalah (? -618)
  35. Amr IV ibn Jabalah (618-628)
  36. Jabalah V ibn al-Harith (628-632)
  37. Jabalah VI ibn al-Aiham (632-638)

Ghassan see Ghassanids


Ghatafan
Ghatafan (Banu Ghatafan).  Name of a group of northern Arabian tribes, belonging to the Qays ‘Aylan.  They played a role in the Prophet’s time and in early Islam. 

The Banu Ghatafan are a massive ancient tribe north of Medinah and from them come the tribes of Banu Abs and Ashga and Banu Thibyaan. They were one of the Arab tribes that interacted with Muhammad. They are notable for allying themselves with the Banu Quraish in the Battle of the Trench.

Banu Ghatafan see Ghatafan


Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad al-
Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad al- (Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali) (Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazzali) (Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad at-Tusi al-Ghazali) (Algazel) (Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī) (1058-1111).  Muslim theologian, jurist, original thinker, mystic, and religious reformer.  His great work Revival of the Religious Sciences made Sufism an acceptable part of orthodox Islam.
 
Al-Ghazali is most famous for his contributions to Islamic philosophical theology (kalam), jurisprudence (fiqh), and mysticism (tassawwuf, or Sufism).  He is also known as Algazel in the West.  Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Tusi al-Shafi‘i al-Ghazali was born in 1058 in Tus [Khorman], near Meshed (Mashhad), Iran. Al-Ghazali was born into a family of scholars and mystics.  He was first influenced by his father, who was a pious dervish, and later by a Sufi friend of his father, not to mention his brother, who is recognized as a distinguished mystic.  Despite the presence of Sufis around him, al-Ghazali showed a great deal of interest in jurisprudence and speculative sciences.

Al-Ghazali’s father died while al-Ghazali was still very young but al-Ghazali had the opportunity of getting an education in the prevalent curriculum at Nishapur and Baghdad.  His studies at Nishapur were guided by al-Juwaini, the Imam al-Haramain, until the latter’s death in 1085.  Soon he acquired a high standard of scholarship in religion and philosophy.  

Al-Ghazali studied with such masters as Muhammad al-Radadhkhani al-Tusi, Abu Nasr al-Isma‘ili, as well as with al-Juwaini, -- the “Imam al-Haramain.”  Ghazali, who at one point was studying in the Nizamiyyah Academy, became the disciple of ‘Ali al-Farmadhi al-Tusi, through whom he became further acquainted with the theoretical as well as practical aspects of Sufism.  He then applied himself to austere forms of ascetic practices, but to his dismay did not attain the desired spiritual states.  This, in addition to the fact that al-Ghazali’s intellectual thirst was too strong to allow him to forget the intellectual pursuit of truth, contributed to his growing skepticism. 

Having gained an excellent reputation as a scholar, in 1091 al-Ghazali was appointed by Nizam al-Mulk (1018-1092), an ardent al-Ghazali admirer and the vizier to the Seljuk sultan, to teach at Nizamiyya University in Baghdad, which was recognized as one of the most reputed institutions of learning in the golden era of Muslim history.   

At this point in his life, al-Ghazali was the chair at the Nizamiyyah Academy and one of the supreme judges known for his numerous commentaries on jurisprudence.  Although having attained such titles as the “Proof of Islam” (hujat al-Islam), the “Renewer of Religion” (mujaddid al-dini), and the “Ornament of Faith” (Zain al-Din), Ghazali was inwardly going through an intellectual and spiritual crisis.   In his quest for certainty, he had begun to question the position of the scholastic theologians who derived the validity of their ideas from dictums of faith that they, the theologians, considered to be axiomatic.  His doubt soon spread to other facets of his belief, and the inner turmoil of teaching the orthodox positions on the one hand and questioning them on the other intensified his spiritual crisis.

Adding to his spiritual crisis was the fact that al-Ghazali’s patron, Nizam al-Mulk was assassinated in 1092 by Batinites (Isma‘ilis) who were terrorizing the eastern empire, supported by the Fatimid authorities in Egypt.

In 1095, al-Ghazali’s personal crisis of faith reached a climax. He relinquished his position, left his family, and became an ascetic.  This was a period of mystical transformation as al-Ghazali dedicated himself to the mystical quest, Sufism.   An era of solitary life, devoted to contemplation and writing then ensued, which led to the authorship of a number of enduring books.   

In the eleven years following his resignation, al-Ghazali traveled widely.  During this time, al-Ghazali visited Mecca, Alexandria, Jerusalem (which he left shortly before its capture by the Crusaders) and Damascus.  After ten years of wandering and meditation, he accepted another teaching position in Nishapur but left it shortly afterward and retired to Tus, where he composed his most influential work, the massive Ihya ulum al-din (The Revivification of the Religious Sciences). The work contains four volumes of ten books each.  The first volume opens with two books that discuss knowledge and the foundations of religious orthodoxy.  It then proceeds to a discussion of ibadat, that is, ritual purity, worship, the pillars of Islam, and other religious practices.

The second volume focuses on adat, the conduct of daily life, and the third and fourth volumes analyze the interior life.  The third addresses muhlikat, those practices that lead to damnation.  This is not a dry catalog of vices but an often subtle and astute inquiry into psychological and ascetic theory.  Volume four explores those actions that lead to salvation (munjiyat) in terms that resonate strongly with the stages and states of the Sufi mystical path of repentance, patience, gratitude, fear, and hope.

In 1106, the vizier Fakhr al-Mulk, son of al-Ghazali’s former patron Nizam al-Mulk, convinced him to return to public life as professor at the Nizamiyya in Nishapur.  Soon afterwards, al-Ghazali wrote his autobiography Al-munqidh min al-dalal (Deliverance from Error), which encapsulates his own personal religious crisis as well as his intellectual stance vis-a-vis Islamic philosophy and sectarian movements like that of the Batinites.  Al-Ghazali’s own training in philosophy had begun under al-Juwaini, but while teaching at Baghdad he had pursued privately a thorough study of Arab Neoplatonism exemplified in the works of al-Farabi and Ibn Sina.  Before his crisis he published a stinging refutation of their work in Tahafut al-falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers or The Destruction of the Philosophers). 

In his autobiography, al-Ghazali does not reject philosophy outright.  Logic and philosophical methodology are acceptable as long as they do not contradict the truth of God’s word, which is ultimately inaccessible to the fallible human intellect.  Al-Ghazali’s personal crisis convinced him that philosophical theology and law were by themselves inadequate means to knowledge of God.  It is mysticism that affords the seeker a true personal taste (dhauq) of the divine.  Both mysticism and the religious sciences must be pursued if one is fully to experience Islamic life. 

A short time before his death, al-Ghazali retired again to Tus, where he established a Sufi convent (a khanaqah).  There he taught his disciples and directed their spiritual progress. 

Al-Ghazali died on December 18, 1111.  He is revered by Muslims and non-Muslims alike as an intellectual giant who wedded philosophical method to theology and established mysticism on a firm intellectual base within the mainstream Muslim community.

Al-Ghazali made major contributions in religion, philosophy and Sufism.  A number of Muslim philosophers had been following and developing several viewpoints of Greek philosophy, including the Neoplatonic philosophy, and this was leading to conflict with several Islamic teachings.  On the other hand, the movement of Sufism was assuming such excessive proportions as to avoid observance of obligatory prayers and duties of Islam.  Based on his brilliant scholarship and his personal mystical experience, al-Ghazali sought to rectify these trends, both in philosophy and Sufism. 

In philosophy, al-Ghazali upheld the approach of mathematics and exact sciences as essentially correct.  However, he adopted the techniques of Aristotelian logic and the Neoplatonic procedures and employed these very tools to lay bare the flaws and lacunas of the then prevalent Neoplatonic philosophy and to diminish the negative influences of Aristotelianism and excessive rationalism.  In contrast to some of the Muslim philosophers, e.g., al-Farabi, he portrayed the inability of reason to comprehend the absolute and the infinite.  Reason could not transcend the finite and was limited to the observation of the relative.  Also, several Muslim philosophers had held that the universe was finite in space but infinite in time.  Al-Ghazali argued that an infinite time was related to an infinite space.  With his clarity of thought and force of argument, he was able to create a balance between religion and reason, and identified their respective spheres as being the infinite and the finite, respectively.

In religion, particularly mysticism, al-Ghazali cleansed the approach of Sufism of its excesses and re-established the authority of the orthodox religion.  Yet, he stressed the importance of genuine Sufism, which he maintained was the path to attain the absolute truth.

Al-Ghazali was a prolific writer.  His most noted books include Tuhafat al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), Ihya al-‘Ulum al-Islamia (The Revival of the Religious Sciences), The Beginning of Guidance, and Deliverance from Error.  Some of his works were translated into European languages in the Middle Ages.  He also wrote a summary of astronomy.

Al-Ghazali’s influence was deep and enduring.  He is one of the greatest theologians of Islam.  His theological doctrines penetrated Europe and influenced Jewish and Christian scholasticism.  Indeed, several of al-Ghazali’s theses appear to have been adopted by Thomas Aquinas in order to similarly re-establish the authority of orthodox Christian religion in the West.  So forceful were al-Ghazali’s arguments in the favor of religion that he was accused of damaging the cause of philosophy compelling Ibn Rushd (Averroes) to write a rejoinder to al-Ghazali’s Tuhafat.

Al-Ghazali documented his internal struggle and the religious solution he finally achieved in The Deliverance from Error (or The Deliverer from Error), a work that has been compared to The Confessions of Saint Augustine.  In this work, al-Ghazali describes his examination of kalam (orthodox Muslim scholasticism), falsafa (metaphysics based on those of the Greeks) and t’lim (the doctrine of those who accept, without criticism, the teaching of an infallible Imam) before deciding for Sufism. 

Al-Ghazali’s great work is the The Revival of the Religious Sciences (The Revivification of the Religious Sciences).  In The Revival of the Religious Sciences, al-Ghazali presented his unified view of religion incorporating elements from all three sources formerly considered contradictory: tradition, intellectualism, and mysticism.  The work has been considered the greatest religious book written by a Muslim, second only to the Qur’an.

After having mastered the methods of philosophy, al-Ghazali set out to refute the Neo-platonic theories of other Muslim philosophers, particularly those of Ibn Sina (Avicenna), which were opposed to such orthodox religious doctrines as that of the creation, the immortality of the soul, and divine providence.  The resultant attack on philosophical theory and speculation, set forth in al-Ghazali’s Destruction of the Philosophers (or The Incoherence of the Philosophers), was in large measure responsible for the eventual decline of the element of rationalism in Islam. 

Assuming that reason leads to certainty and a firm ground upon which one can establish belief, al-Ghazali immersed himself in the study of philosophy.  To his dismay, he then discovered that reason goes only so far.  It fails to bring about ultimate certainty.  Al-Ghazali alluded to inconsistencies among the philosophers and discussed twenty points on which, according to al-Ghazali, they could be proven to be mistaken.

With his hope for attaining certainty dashed, al-Ghazali collapsed, physically and mentally going through an intense state of despair, losing his appetite and power of speech.  Having become convinced that truth is not attainable through the study of jurisprudence or philosophy, he began a mystical journey in 1095 when he left Baghdad for Damascus, where he practiced austere forms of ascetic practices.  al-Ghazali wandered in Islamic lands for eleven years, during which time he meditated and engaged himself in ascetic practices, until he returned to his native city of Tus.  From then on al-Ghazali either taught or spent time in seclusion.

In travelling on his intellectual journey, al-Ghazali questioned everything that can be questioned, searching for a truth which could not be doubted.  In his search for the indubitable truth, al-Ghazali questioned the original identity of the self or the “I” before the self is placed within the context of a given religion.  Believing himself to have found the “I” which serves as the foundation of knowledge, al-Ghazali touched on a number of epistemological issues.  He pointed to the dubious nature of sense perception and of reality itself.

Having criticized the traditional views of the Peripatetics’ epistemology, al-Ghazali went on to offer a critique of four classes of knowers: mystics, Batinis, theologians, and philosophers.  As to mystics, al-Ghazali was opposed to those Sufis who did not observe the religious law (shari‘a) and who propagated the Doctrine of the Unity of Being (wah dat al-wujud), which for him had pantheistic implications.  Al-Ghazali was vehemently against the Isma‘ili Shi‘ites, also referred to as the Batinis, for they rejected the shari‘a and argued that only an infallible Imam has access to truth.

According to al-Ghazali, theologians were blameworthy only for their methodology, and not for the content of their discussion.  Al-Ghazali (who in the opinion of many, remained a theologian for his whole life despite his criticism of them) found the attempt to establish a reason-based theology a futile effort.  Theology, he argued, does not begin with axiomatic principles, but with premises whose validity should ultimately be accepted on the basis of faith alone.

In the autobiographical al-Munqidh min al-dalal (The Deliverer [Deliverance] from Error), al-Ghazali describes how his intense pursuit of truth led him to investigate all academic disciplines available to an educated medieval Muslim.  None, including Sufism, satisfied him because, as he discovered, truth was gained only through immediate experience.  Oral instruction and the study of Sufism were no substitute for walking in the Way.  After agonizing self-examination, al-Ghazali resigned his post at the prestigious Baghdad Nizamiyya Madrasa. 

For more than ten years, al-Ghazali remained outside public life, opting for solitary reflection interrupted only by consultations with “men of the heart” -- consultations with Sufis.  However, al-Ghazali did not merely meditate he also wrote.  The resulting spiritual diary was a formidable book, one that surpassed all his previous literary productions in scope and insight. 

Entitled Ihya ‘ulum ad-din (The Bringing to Life of the Sciences of Religions or The Revival of the Religious Sciences, al-Ghazali’s diary is a survey of the entire range of Muslim theological, philosophical, devotional, and sectarian thought in the eleventh and twelfth centuries of the Christian era.  The mystical fervor of the Ihya is cloaked in a tight schematic garb.  It is divided into two parts, each of which has two quarters, the first two with matters of the heart, corresponding to the most common Sufi dyad, the outer -- the Zahir -- and the inner -- the Batin.  Each of the quarters, in turn, has ten books, for a total of forty books, a number whose symbolic reference to the forty-day retreat of Sufis was not lost on al-Ghazali’s contemporaries. 

The Ihya, despite its length of over one thousand pages, was widely read and quoted in Arabic.  Al-Ghazali himself rendered it into a Persian abridgment entitled Kimiya-yi sa’adat (The Elixir of Happiness).  Other adaptations, translations, and commentaries appeared throughout the medieval, and even into the modern, period.

Having mastered Greek philosophy -- in particular Aristotle -- as well as his Muslim counterparts, al-Ghazali wrote Intentions of the Philosophers (Maqasid al-falasifah) and a lucid exposition of Aristotelian philosophy entitled Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-falasifah), in which by the dialectical method he attempted to destroy the philosophers’ positions.

Al-Ghazali divides the philosophers into three groups: the materialists (dahriyyun), who reject the existence of God and argue for the eternity of the world; the theists (ilahiyyun), who accept the existence of God; and the naturalists (tabi ‘iyyun), who are not necessarily opposed to the existence of a creator, but who argue against the immortality of the soul.

Al-Ghazali, whose thorough understanding of the philosophers’ position had led him to believe that pursuing reason alone would lead to the destruction of religion and morality, considered the philosophers to be heretical on three accounts: For accepting the eternity of the world, for denying God’s knowledge of particulars, and for denying bodily resurrection.

Acceptance of the eternity of the world entails making the world co-eternal with God, an unacceptable conclusion to the orthodoxy, al-Ghazali points out.  Philosophers argue that the eternity of the world follows by necessity from three fundamental axioms: (1) Nothing comes out of nothing, or to put it differently, something cannot come from nothing; (2) Given a particular cause, the effect necessarily and immediately follows; (3) A cause is different from and external to the effect.

Al-Ghazali offers a series of arguments against the axioms that philosophers regard to be self-evident.  In numerous arguments, he alludes to inconsistencies within these axioms.  The denial of God’s knowledge of particulars necessitates God’s relative ignorance, a position unacceptable by the Islamic credo.  Furthermore, the denial of bodily resurrection is contrary to numerous Qur’anic references concerning bodily resurrection.  The philosophers, al-Ghazali argues, make the following three claims as the basis for denying the belief in bodily resurrection: (1) There is no logical necessity that bodies be resurrected in their physical forms, (2) If there are no bodies in the hereafter, there can be neither pain nor pleasure in the other world, (3) Hell and Heaven in their physical sense do not exist, they are of a purely spiritual nature.

Al-Ghazali then proceeds to argue against the above premises, using the rationalistic method of the Peripatetics. Al-Ghazali specifically criticizes the philosophers for holding twenty fallacious opinions to which the use of reason has led them.  Among the fallacious views al-Ghazali attributes to the Peripatetics in his Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-falasifah):  The world has no beginning and no end; God did not create the universe ex nihilo; God is simple and has no quiddity (distinguishing character); God can know nothing but himself; God cannot know particulars; heavenly bodies have animal souls that move by volition; miracles are impossible; human souls are not immortal; and corporeal resurrection is impossible.

Al-Ghazali contends in his critique of the above notions that through faith and faith alone can one come to the truth.  The reliance on reason leads only to frustration and incoherence.

Al-Ghazali undertook a scathing attack against several philosophical positions, among them the theory of divine emanation.  Al-Ghazali meticulously demonstrates that the theory of emanation propagated by philosophers fails to achieve the very purpose for which philosophers have postulated it.  First, it does not solve the problem of how multiplicity came from unity and second, it fails to retain the divine unity that the theory of emanation is supposed to safeguard.

On the question of God’s knowledge of particulars, al-Ghazali is adamant that God knows all the particulars and anything short of this acknowledgment negates God’s omniscience.  Even Ibn Sina, who accepts God’s omniscience, is criticized by Ghazali for stating that even though God knows everything, he does so in a universal way, that is, in a way that is beyond the spatio-temporal (space-time) limitations of human cognition.

Knowing that philosophers base many of their arguments on the law of cause and effect, al-Ghazali critically analyzes it.  His criticism, which is very similar to David Hume’s argument, maintains that the relationship between a cause and the effect is not a logical necessity.  Knowledge of the causal relations between fire and burning or water and wetness is not based on reasoning about necessary relations, but on sense observation.

Having argued against the necessary connection between a cause and its effect, al-Ghazali uses this to offer an explanation of the phenomenon of miracle.  To those who argue for the impossibility of miracles on the ground that a miracle violates natural laws, al-Ghazali’s critique of causality explains how the continuity of the so-called “laws” of nature can be disrupted without violating any law.

Al-Ghazali elaborates extensively on ethics and moral problems.  Relying on the Qur’anic concepts, he uses Aristotelian notions to shed light on some of the complex issues.  One of the issues that al-Ghazali was particularly interested in was the problem of free will and determination and how that is related to the problem of human choices.

Al-Ghazali, both as a theologian and a jurist, believed that causal determinism is incompatible with moral responsibility.  To solve the problem he offers an ingenious argument that contains three levels: first, there is the level of the material world, where events occur out of necessity; second, there is the sensuous world, where there is relative freedom of action; and finally there is the Divine realm, where there is absolute free will.

Al-Ghazali realizes the significance of having free will, since without it Heaven and Hell would be meaningless.  Having established the relative nature of human will, al-Ghazali discusses vices and virtues and man’s duty to exercise his noble gift of free will to do what is good.  He defines vices as desires of the flesh and ego (nafs) that lead to bodily excesses such as unrestrained sex; overindulgence in food; misuse of speech; love of wealth, position, name, and self-assertion.  There are also sicknesses of the soul that ought to be cured by such virtues as repentance; renunciation of the materialistic world; abstinence from giving in to the desires of flesh; spiritual poverty or emptiness, which signifies a desire and ability to be filled by divine truth; patience; reliance on God as the spiritual center of the world; and finally love, the most important of all virtues.  Love, for al-Ghazali, leads to an unmediated mode of cognition between the human being and God (‘arif).  This subject was extensively treated in the post-Ghazali period and it reached its climax in the School of Isfahan during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Persia.

Al-Ghazali has sometimes been compared unfavorably with his younger brother, Ahmad al-Ghazali, a Sufi Shaikh and consummate poet.  Both men charted new directions for the future course of Muslim spirituality, but to date the prolific and scholarly Abu Hamid al-Ghazali has attracted the greater attention.

History now records that Abu Hamid al-Ghazali was a major figure in the intellectual life of medieval Islam.  As a jurist, al-Ghazali defended the integrity of the Sunni creed, and was especially concerned to show its superiority to the system of the Nizari Ismailis, a Shi‘ite sectarian group whose speculations attracted and challenged him.  As a scholastic theologian, al-Ghazali inherited the Neoplatonic philosophical categories introduced into Islam through Arabic translations from Greek, popularized by the rationalist, free-thinking Mu’tazila movement and elaborated by the Turkish metaphysician al-Farabi and his Persian successor, Ibn Sina.  Al-Ghazali reworked the dialectical categories of earlier Muslim theologians such as al-Ash’ari and his own teacher, al-Juwayni, but it was as a mystic that he attained his greatest fame and effected his most lasting influence.
 
Philosophers rarely have an impact on the history of philosophy through their lives as well as through their ideas.  Al-Ghazali, however, is such a figure in that various phases of his life left an indelible mark on the history of Islamic philosophy by strengthening Sufism while curtailing the influence of rationalistic philosophy, particularly in the eastern part of the Islamic world. 
Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali see Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad al-
Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazzali see Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad al-
Ghazzali, al- see Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad al-
Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad at-Tusi al-Ghazali see Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad al-
Algazel see Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad al-
“Proof of Islam” see Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad al-


Ghazali, Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-
Ghazali, Ahmad ibn Muhammad al- (Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali) (Ahmad Ghazali) (Maid al-Din Abu'l Fotuh Ahmad Ghazali) (1061-1126).  Brother of the more renowned Abu Hamid al-Ghazali.  He was a Sufi and a popular preacher.


Ahmad Ghazali, known as Majd al-Din Abu'l Fotuh Ahmad Ghazali, was an outstanding mystic, writer, and eloquent preacher. The younger brother of the celebrated theologian, jurist, and Sufi, Abū Ḥāmid al-Ḡhazālī, Aḥmad Ghazali was born in a village near Tus Khorasan. In Tus, he was educated primarily in jurisprudence. He turned to Sufism while still young, becoming the pupil first of Abu Bakr Nassaj Tusi (d. 1094) and then of Abu Ali Farmadi (d. 1084). He was advanced in Sufism by 1095 and his brother Abū Ḥāmid asked him to teach in his place in the Nezamiya of Baghdad and assume responsibility during his planned absence. Ahmad Ghazali travelled extensively in the capacities of both Sufi master and a popular preacher. He visited Neyshapur, Maragha, Hamadan and Isfahan. He died in Qazvin and is buried there. He initiated and trained imminent masters of Sufism including Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani, Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi. The latter was the founder of the Suhrawardi order and its derivatives such as the Kubrawiya, Molawiya and Nematollahi orders.

The works of Ahmad Ghazali include:

    * Sawaneh, written around 1114 and comprising some 77 short chapters, was innovative in form. For a time when Persian Sufi authors used only prose, Ḡhazālī had recourse to verse in order to illustrate in metaphorical fashion the themes he expounded more technically in the prose sections of his work.
    * Resālat al-ṭayr (or al-ṭoyūr) in which Ahmad Ghazali employs the metaphor of a bird and its journey. This work set a precedent for the conference of the birds of Attar.



Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali see Ghazali, Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-
Ahmad Ghazali see Ghazali, Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-
Maid al-Din Abu'l Futuh Ahmad Ghazali see Ghazali, Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-


Ghazali, Muhammad al-
Ghazali, Muhammad al- (Muhammad al-Ghazali) (Mohammed al-Ghazali al-Saqqa) (1917-1996)..  Egyptian religious scholar and former leading member of al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood).  Born in Buhayra Province, he graduated from al-Azhar in 1941 and occupied influential positions in his own country and in other Arab states.  In Egypt, he was director of the Mosques Department, director general of Islamic Call (da‘wah), and under secretary of the Ministry of Awqaf.  He also taught at the Universities of al-Azhar (Egypt), King ‘Abd al-‘Aziz and Umm al-Qura (Saudi Arabia), and Qatar and was the academic director of Amir ‘Abd al-Qadir’s Islamic University in Algeria.

Al-Ghazali was dismissed from his position in the hay’ah ta’ sisiyah (constituent body) of the Ihkwan in December 1953, reportedly after attempting, with two other prominent members, to unseat the organization’s leader, Hasan al-Hudaybi (with the approval, some Muslim Brothers suspected, of Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Free Officers). 

Active in publishing, al-Ghazali wrote approximately forty titles including such important works as Moral Character of the Muslim; Islam and Economic Affairs; Islam and Political Despotism; A Constitution for Cultural Unity; and Prejudice and Tolerance in Christianity and Islam.  He established a reputation for being a reasonable, well-balanced, and independent scholar.  He was a rigorous jurist, although by no means a traditionalist, and his positions on various issues were taken seriously by the mainstream of the Islamic movement. 

Substantively, al-Ghazali submitted the important thesis that contemporary Muslims have paid excessively detailed jurisprudential attention to matters of cleanliness, prayers, pilgrimage, and rituals while lagging far behind the West with regard to matters of government, the economy, and finance. 

Al-Ghazali was strongly supportive of an extensively defined concept of shura (political consultation), and he was regarded as somewhat modernist in social and technological matters, condemning the austere, simplistic orientation of what he termed al-fiqh al-badawi (“nomadic jurisprudence”), and he did not preclude the experience of other (non-Muslim) societies as a source of inspiration for Muslim societies.  For example, he cited both historical Islamic as well as contemporary non-Islamic examples to support the case that a woman may legitimately assume any high post in society.

Methodologically, al-Ghazali’s main, and rather daring, contribution was his attempt to reduce what he regarded as an excessive reliance on the hadith in contemporary jurisprudence.  He admitted only the hadiths that had a Qur’anic credibility and excluded ahadith al-ahad (“single sayings”), if they appear odd or ill reasoned.  He maintained that “a little reading of the blessed Qur’an and a lot of reading of the ahadith did not give an accurate picture of Islam.”  In his view, it was this lopsided methodology in approaching Islam that partly explains what he regards as the “infantile” attitude of militant Islamists.  For Muhammad al-Ghazali, the Islamists are obsessed with power but poorly trained doctrinally.

Al-Ghazali’s strict scrutiny of the hadith thus enables him to criticize simultaneously both the Muslim social reactionaries, who use hadiths on the flimsiest grounds to justify such practices as beating and sodomizing wives, and the Islamist political radicals who have used similar hadiths to justify forcing their own views and authority on society at large. 

The works of al-Ghazali include:

    * Islam and the Modern Economy
    * Islam and Political Despotism
    * Fanaticism and Tolerance Between Christianity and Islam
    * Fiqh Al Seerah

Muhammad al-Ghazali see Ghazali, Muhammad al-


Ghazali, Zaynab al-
Ghazali, Zaynab al- (Zaynab al-Ghazali) (January 2, 1917 – August 8, 2005).  Writer and teacher of the Muslim Brotherhood and the founder of the Muslim Women’s Association (1936-1964).  The daughter of an al-Azhar educated independent religious teacher and cotton merchant, she was privately tutored in Islamic studies in the home in addition to attending public school through the secondary level, and she obtained certificates in hadith, preaching, and Qur’anic exegesis.  Her father encouraged her to become an Islamic leader, citing the example of Nusaybah bint Ka‘b al-Maziniyah, a woman who fought alongside the Prophet in the Battle of Uhud.  Although for a short time she joined Huda Sha‘rawi’s Egyptian Feminist Union, she came to see this as a mistaken path for women, believing that women’s rights were guaranteed in Islam.  At the age of eighteen she founded the Jama‘at al-Sayyidat al-Muslimat (Muslim Women’s Association), which had a membership of three million throughout the country by the time it was dissolved by government order in 1964.  Her weekly lectures to women at the Ibn Tulun Mosque drew a crowd of three thousand, which grew to five thousand during the holy months of the year.  Besides offering lessons for women, the association published a magazine, maintained an orphanage, offered assistance to poor families, and mediated family disputes.  The association also took a political stance, demanding that Egypt be ruled by the Qur’an.

The similar goals of the Muslim Brotherhood were noted by its founder, Hasan al-Banna’, who requested that al-Ghazali’s association merge with the Muslim Sisters, the women’s branch of his organization.  She refused until 1949, shortly before al-Banna’s assassination, when, sensing that it was critical for all Muslims to unite behind al-Banna’s leadership, she gave him her oath of allegiance and offered him her association.  He accepted her oath and said that the Muslim Women’s Association could remain independent.  During the 1950s, the Muslim Women’s Association cooperated with the Muslim Sisters to provide for families who had lost wealth and family members as a result of Nasser’s crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood.

Al-Ghazali was instrumental in re-grouping the Muslim Brotherhood in the early 1960s.  Imprisoned for her activities in 1965, she was sentenced to twenty-five years of hard labor but was released under Anwar al-Sadat’s presidency in 1971.  She described her prison experiences, which included suffering many heinous forms of torture, in a book entitled Ayyam min hayati (Days from My Life) which was published in 1977.  Al-Ghazali depicted herself as enduring torture with strength beyond that of most men, and she attested to both miracles and visions that strengthened her and enabled her to survive.  She saw herself as the object of President Gamal Abdel Nasser’s personal hatred, for she and her colleague ‘Abd al-Fattah Isma‘il “robbed” Nasser of the generation that had been raised on his propaganda.  She believed that the superpowers were involved in singling her out to Nasser as a threat, and indeed she affirmed that Islam’s mission means the annihilation of the power of the United States and the Soviet Union.  Nonetheless, she denied that the Muslim Brotherhood intended to assassinate Nasser, for “killing the unjust ruler does not do away with the problem” of a society that needs to be entirely re-educated in Islamic values.  In her book, she condemned tactics of murder, torture, and terrorism and denied that the Muslim Brotherhood wanted to usurp power.  Later, however, she justified the threat of violence against unbelievers in order to bring them forcibly “from darkness to light,” comparing such tactics to snatching poison from the hands of a child.  She defined the Muslim Brotherhood as the association of all Muslims and said that Muslims who did not belong to it were deficient, although she did not go so far as to call them unbelievers.  At that time, she supported the Iranian Revolution, but in a later interview (September 13, 1988) she said that both the Shiism of the regime and the tactics of violence against its citizens had led her to conclude that it was not really an Islamic state.

The Muslim Women’s Association was taken from al-Ghazali’s hands in 1965 and merged with a rival association of the same name founded by a former member of her group.  The rival group was a religious voluntary association.  Such associations, which number in the thousands, have played a major role in the religious life of women in Egypt in this century, offering lessons in the Qur’an and Islamic law, classes in sewing and other crafts, and pre-schools for children, among other social services.

After her release from prison, al-Ghazali resumed teaching and writing, first for the revived Muslim Brotherhood’s monthly magazine, Al-da‘wah, banned by Sadat in September 1981, and then for another Islamist publication, Liwa’ al-islam.  She described herself as a “mother” to the Muslim Sisters, as well as to the young men she helped organize in the early 1960s.  She was editor of a women’s and children’s section in Al-da‘wah, in which she encouraged women to become educated, but to be obedient to their husbands and stay at home while raising their children.  She blamed many of the ills of society on the absence of mothers from the home.  This conservative stance appears to be contradicted by the historical figures she used as models of womanhood in short vignettes in that same section, courageous women warriors from the early period of Islam, including members of the extremist Khariji sect, which was virtually obliterated in warfare with the larger Muslim community.

Al-Ghazali’s own example as an activist in the public sphere who divorced her first husband for interfering with her Islamic activities and threatened her second husband with the same also appears to contradict her own advice.  When asked about this discrepancy, she said that her case was special, because God had given her the “blessing” – although not viewed as such by most people – of not having conceived any children.  This gave her a great deal of freedom.  Her husband was also quite wealthy, so she had servants to do her housework.  She further regarded it as a boon that her husband was a polygamist, for whenever he went to see one of his other wives, “it was like a vacation” for her.  She insisted, nonetheless, that she remained obedient to her husband.  She believed that Islam allows women to be active in all aspects of public life, as long as it does not interfere with their first and most sacred duty: to be a wife and  mother.  Her second husband died while she was in prison (having divorced her under threat of imprisonment himself).  Having fulfilled her duty of marriage, she felt free to devote all of her energies to the Islamic cause.  Although the Islamist movement throughout the Muslim world today has attracted large numbers of young women, especially since the 1970s, Zaynab al-Ghazali stands out thus far as the only woman to distinguish herself as one of its major leaders. 
Zaynab al-Ghazali see Ghazali, Zaynab al-


Ghazal, Yahya ibn Hakam al-
Ghazal, Yahya ibn Hakam al- (Yahya ibn Hakam al-Ghazal).  Poet at the court of the ninth century Spanish Umayyads, known for his satires and avarice.  In 840, the amir ‘Abd al-Rahman II sent him on a diplomatic mission to the Byzantine emperor Theophilus. 
Yahya ibn Hakam al-Ghazal see Ghazal, Yahya ibn Hakam al-


Ghazan
Ghazan (Mahmud Ghazan) (Qazaan the Khan of the Mongol Khanate in Middle Asia) (Casanus) (Cassanus) (November 5, 1271 – May 11, 1304).. First Muslim Il-Khanid ruler who was the ruler of Iran (r.1295-1304).  Ghazan is considered the greatest of the Mongol Ilkhans.  Although he had an active military career, Ghazan is remembered primarily for his administrative achievements.  Brought up as a Buddhist, Ghazan became a Muslim shortly before his accession and set out to reimpose Islam as the official religion of the realm.  His first decree ordered the destruction of the churches, synagogues, and Buddhist temples built by earlier, non-Muslim Il-khans.  Ghazan also instituted reforms systematizing the chaotic administration of the Ilkhanid realm.  He reorganized taxation, currency, weights and measures, and the system of military support.  These reforms did much to improve the Ilkhanid economy and administration.  Ghazan was a patron of culture, both Islamic and foreign.  He valued his Mongolian heritage highly and was expert in Mongol history and traditions.  The historical treatise (History of the Mongols) that he commissioned from his vizier, Rashid al-Din Tabib, includes the history of the Turks, the Mongols, Europe, India, and China.  Ghazan died on May 11, 1304, at the age of thirty-two.

Western chroniclers sometimes referred to Mahmud Ghazan as Casanus or Cassanus. Ghazan converted Mongol Persia to Islam. He also delivered the only major Mongol victory over the Mamelukes in 1299, though he did not have sufficient army to hold Syria.

Ghazan was the eldest son of the crown prince Arghun and Qutlugh of the Dorben clan. He was also the nephew of the earlier Ilkhan ruler Gaykhatu, and a cousin of his predecessor Baydu, whom Ghazan toppled.

Ghazan was baptized and raised a Christian, along with his brother Oljeitu. When he was born, his father, Arghun, was viceroy in Khorasan for Abaqa Khan.

During Ghazan's youth, he followed Buddhism, one of the dominant religions in the Mongol empire at that time. During Ghazan's fourth year, Abaqa Khan placed him in the Ordo (palace-tent) of his childless khatun Bulughan. Ghazan's grandparents had a Chinese Buddhist monk teach him Mongolian and Uighur scripts and Buddhism. It is said that little Ghazan learned to ride a horse quickly and that his grandfather was proud of him. His step-grandmother Bulughan took good care of him.

After the Ilkhan Abaqa’s death Bulughan’s Ordo moved to Khorasan with Ghazan in 1282. His father Arghun was crowned as Ilkhan the next year and Ghazan was left in Khorasan as viceroy.

In spite of his traditional Mongolian hobby hunting, he liked handicrafts. Ghazan built a major Buddhist temple at Quchan, though he was surrounded by amazing Muslim culture. Ghazan found his loyal companions such as Qutlughshah of the Manghud, Nurin agha of the Jurkhin, and Sad-ud-Din Savaji Persian there.

In 1289, a notable Oirat noble's son Nawroz rebelled and joined the alliance of Kaidu, the ruler of both the House of Ogedei and the Chagatai Khanate. Ghazan resided for the next 10 years and defended the frontier against the Chagatai Mongols of Central Asia. When Arghun khan was murdered in 1291, Nawroz’s raids and rebellion and famine in Khorasan and Nishapur kept Ghazan from pressing his claim in the capital. Ghazan’s uncle Gaykhatu became new Ilkhan and took over most of Abagha’s wives and properties.

Ghazan's principal wife during his lifetime was Kökechin, who had been brought from the Empire of the Great Khan by Marco Polo. She had originally been betrothed to the Ilkhan Arghun, but he died before her arrival, so she instead married Ghazan, his son, when his uncle Gaykhatu was ruling Mongol Persia. Ghazan refused to introduce paper currency to his province, though he was loyal to the Ilkhan Gaykhatu. Ghazan explained that the weather of Khorasan was too humid to handle paper and he subsequently set printing machines of paper notes on fire. He probably understood that the introduction of paper money would be contrary to the customs of the Muslims in North-East Persia.

After Nawroz and Nishapur surrendered in 1294-95, Ghazan was finally free to pursue his claim to the throne of the Ilkhanate and his father's properties. It coincided with the death of Gaykhatu in 1295.

Ghazan annexed power from Baydu in 1295 with the help of the prominent Muslim Mongol amir Nawruz, who persuaded Ghazan to convert to Shi'a Islam, as a condition for the latter's military support in toppling Baidu. When he converted, Ghazan changed his first name to the Arab name Mahmud, and Islam gained popularity within Mongol territories. However, various sources stated that even with Ghazan's conversion to Islam, he still practiced Mongol Shamanism at large and worshipped Tengri because he honored his ancestors' worship of heaven as a kind of proto-Islamic monotheism. The Yassa code remained in place and Mongol Shamans were allowed to remain in the Ilkhanate. The shamans remained politically influential throughout the reign of both Ghazan and Oljeitu, but ancient Mongol traditions eventually went into decline after the demise of Oljeitu.

Ghazan was a man of high culture, with numerous hobbies including linguistics, agro-techniques, painting, chemistry and dispension. He spoke numerous languages, including Chinese, Arabic and "Frank" (probably Latin) as well as his own native language Mongolian. Numerous Europeans are known to have worked for Ghazan often in high positions.

Nawrūz loyalists destroyed Buddhist temples (pagodas had been built in Tabriz and Sultaniye, and numerous monks had immigrated from Sin-Kiang, Tibet or China) and chased Buddhists out of Ilkhan dominion or converted them to Islam, a move from which Iranian Buddhism never recovered. The Christians were also severely affected. The cathedral of Maragha, the Mongol capital, was looted. Churches in Tabriz and Hamadan were also destroyed.

Ghazan soon however put a stop to these exactions by issuing an edict exempting the Christians from the jizya and stated that "none of them shall abandon his faith, that the Catholicus shall live in the state to which he hath been accustomed". Mar Yaballaha was reestablished in his functions in 1296, signaling a return to previous policies. Ghazan also saw political necessity of respecting the religion of his Georgian and Armenian client kings.

Ghazan eliminated the partisans of Nawrūz for treason in May 1297. He then marched against Nawrūz, then commander of the army of Khorassan, in 1297, and vanquished him near Nishapur. Nawrūz took refuge at the court of the malik of Herat, in northern Afghanistan, but the latter actually betrayed him and delivered him to Ghazan, who had him executed immediately on August 13.

Ghazan thereafter attempted to control the situation. The following year he nominated Rashid al-Din, a Jew converted to Islam, as prime minister, a post he would hold continuously between 1298 to 1318. Despite his conversion, due to his cultural roots, Ghazan also encouraged the original archaic Mongol culture to flourish. He tolerated the Shiites as well.

Ghazan eased the troubles with the Golden Horde, but the Ogedeids and Chagataids in Central Asia posed serious threat to the Ilkhanate and his overlord and ally Great Khan in China. When Ghazan was crowned, the Chagatayid Khan Duwa invaded Khorasan in 1295. Ghazan sent two of his relatives against the army of Chagatai Khanate but they deserted. Although, the traitors were captured and executed, some of the notable Mongol nobles began to leave his side. Baltu of the Jalayir and Sulemish of the Oirat revolted against the Ilkhan's rule in Turkey in 1296 and 1299. Sulemish welcomed the Mamelukes to Anatolia and postponed Ghazan's plan to invade Syria, though two Mongol rebels were defeated by Ghazan. A large group of the Oirats fled Syria, defeating the contingent sent by Ghazan in 1299. Ghazan may have discriminated against non-Muslim Oirats. Along with those rebellions, invasions of the Neguderis of the Chagatai Khanate caused difficulties to Ghazan's military operations in Syria.

Ghazan disliked the intervention in internal affairs of other Mongol Khanates of the Mongol Empire. When Nogai and Tokhta, the khan of the Jochids, asked him for military support against each other, he refused twice. This action increased Ghazan's reputation among Tokhta and his Mongols of the Golden Horde.  However, Tokhta demanded the Transcaucasus. Tokhta exchanged presents and envoys with Ghazan regularly. Ghazan also well received Nogai's wife and young son after her husband's defeat in 1299.

Ghazan well maintained his strong ties with the Great Khan of the Yuan and the Golden Horde. In 1296 Temur Khan, the successor of the Great Khan Kublai, dispatched Baiju, the military commander, to Mongol Persia, the western region of the Mongol Empire. Ghazan was so impressed with Baiju's abilities. Five years later, Ghazan sent his Mongolian and Persian retainers to collect income from Hulegu's appanages in China. They presented tribute to Khagan Temur and inspected properties granted to Hulegu in North China. Ghazan's envoys were involved in cultural exchange across Mongol Eurasia. Ghazan called upon other Mongol Khans to unite under the Khagan Temur. Kaidu's enemy Bayan Khan of the White Horde strongly supported his appeal.

Even though Ghazan was a Muslim, he attempted to conquer the Muslim lands of Syria. He was also one of a long line of Mongol leaders who engaged in diplomatic communications with the Europeans in attempts to form a Franco-Mongol alliance against their common enemy, primarily the Egyptian Mamelukes. He already had the use of forces from Christian vassal countries such as Cilician Armenia and Georgia. The plan was to coordinate actions between Ghazan's forces, the Christian military orders, and the aristocracy of Cyprus, to defeat the Muslims, after which Jerusalem would be returned to the Christians.

In October 1299, Ghazan marched with his forces towards Syria and invited the Christians to join him. His forces took the city of Aleppo, and were there joined by King Hethum II of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, whose forces included some Templars and Hospitallers, and who participated in the rest of the offensive. The Mongols and their allies defeated the Mamelukes in the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, on December 23 or 24, 1299. Ghazan's personal courage led the Mongols to crush the Mamelukes. One group of Mongols then split off from Ghazan's army, and pursued the retreating Mameluke troops as far as Gaza, pushing them back to Egypt. The bulk of Ghazan's forces then proceeded on to Damascus, which surrendered somewhere between December 30, 1299, and January 6, 1300, though its Citadel resisted. Ghazan then retreated most of his forces in February, probably because their horses needed fodder. He promised to return in the winter of 1300-1301 to attack Egypt.

In the meantime the remaining forces of the Mongols, about 10,000 horsemen under the Mongol general Mulay, briefly ruled over Syria and engaged in raids as far south as Jerusalem and Gaza, before retreating in February.

In July 1300, the Crusaders formed a small fleet of sixteen galleys with some smaller vessels, to raid the coast, and Ghazan's ambassador traveled with them.

In addition to his religious deep impact on Persia, Ghazan unified measures, coinage and weights in the Ilkhanate. Ghazan ordered a new census in Persia to define the Dynasty's fiscal policy. He began to reuse wilderness or abandoned lands to raise corps. And Mongol soldiers were given iqtas by the Ilkhanid court. Ghazan strongly supported the introduction of Eastern Asian crops in Persia. We are told that Ghazan planted crops in person. Ghazan improved the yam, constructing hostels, hospitals, schools and posts. Envoys from the court received a per diem stipend, and those of the nobility traveled at their own expense. Ghazan ordered only envoys bearing urgent military intelligence to use the staffed postal relay service.

Ghazan introduced a unified bi-metallic currency including Ghazani dinars to Persia. Ghazan organized purchases of raw materials and payment to artisans. He decided to purchase most weapons on the open market and replaced the traditional Mongol policy on craftsmen in the Ilkhanate.

Several new guard units, mostly Mongols, were created by Ghazan for his army center. However, he restricted new guards’ political significance. Seeing Mongol commoners selling their children into slavery as damaging to both the manpower and the prestige of the Mongol army, the Ilkhan budgeted funds to redeem Mongol slave boys. Ghazan made Bolad commander of a military unit of redeemed Mongol slave boys. Ghazan was worried that the now-Islamic Mongols might loose sight of their ancestral traditions and commissioned Rashid al-Din to produce a comprehensive history, the Jami al-Tawarikh, of the people.

In late 1300, the Crusaders attempted to establish a base at the small island of Ruad, from which raids were launched on Tortosa, while awaiting the arrival of the Mongols. However, Ghazan's forces were delayed, and the Crusader forces ended up returning to Cyprus, leaving a garrison on Ruad, which was besieged and captured by Mamelukes by 1303 (see Siege of Ruad).

In February 1301, the Mongols did arrive with a force of 60,000, but could do little else than engage in some raids around Syria. Kutlushah (Qutlugh-Shah for the Mongols, Cotelesse in Frank sources) stationed 20,000 horsemen in the Jordan valley to protect Damas, where a Mongol governor was stationed. Soon however, they had to withdraw.

Plans for combined operations with the Crusaders were again made for the following winter offensive, and in late 1301, Ghazan asked the Pope to send troops, priests, peasants, in order to make the Holy Land a Frank state again. But again, Ghazan did not appear with his own troops. He wrote again to the Pope in 1302, and his ambassadors also visited the court of Charles II of Anjou. When the Mongol envoys returned to Persia after April 27, 1303, they were accompanied by Gualterius de Lavendel, as ambassador of Charles II to Ghazan.

In 1303, the Mongols appeared in great strength (about 80,000) together with the Armenians after repelling the raiders of Chagatai noyan Qutlugh Khwaja. Ruad having been lost, Crusader forces from Cyprus were deprived of the possibility to make contact with Mongol troops in 1303, and only conducted naval attacks on the Syrian coast, raiding Damour, south of Beyrout.

However, Mongol forces with their Armenian allies were defeated at Homs on March 30, 1303, and at the decisive Battle of Marj al-Saffar‎, south of Damascus, in April 1303. It is considered to be the last major Mongol invasion of Syria.

Also in 1303, Ghazan had again sent a letter to Edward I, in the person of Buscarello de Ghizolfi, reiterating Hulagu's promise that they would give Jerusalem to the Franks in exchange for help against the Mamelukes.

Ghazan died on May 10, 1304, and Crusader dreams of a rapid reconquest of the Holy Land were destroyed. In his final illness, Ghazan nominated his brother Oljeitu, who continued the adoption of Islam, as his successor because he had no surviving son. After Oljeitu's death, Ghazan's legacy was succeeded by his nephew Abu Sa'id and niece Sati Beg.

Mahmud Ghazan see Ghazan
Qazaan the Khan of the Mongol Khanate in Middle Asia see Ghazan
Casanus see Ghazan
Cassanus see Ghazan


Ghazi al-Din Haydar
Ghazi al-Din Haydar (Ghazi-ud-Din Haider) (b.c. 1769 - d.c. 1827) was fifth nawab wazir of Oudh from 11 July 1814 to 19 October 1818 and first King of Oudh from October 19, 1818 to October 19, 1827.

He was the third son of Nawab Saadat Ali Khan and Mushir Zadi was his mother. He became Nawab Wazir of Oudh on July 11, 1814 after the death of his father. In 1818, under the influence of Lord Hastings, the British Governor General, he declared himself as the independent Padshah-i-Avadh (King of Oudh). He died in the Farhat Bakhsh palace in Lucknow in 1827. He was succeeded by his son Nasir-ud-Din Haider after his death.

Several monuments in Lucknow were constructed by Ghazi-ud-Din Haider. He built the Chattar Manzil palace and added the Mubarak Manzil and the Shah Manzil in the Moti Mahal complex for better viewing of the animal fights. He also constructed the tombs of his parents, Sadat Ali Khan and Mushir Zadi Begum. For his European wife, he constructed a European style building known as the Vilayati Bagh. Another creation, the Shah Najaf Imambara (1816), his mausoleum, on the bank of the Gomti is a copy of the fourth Caliph Ali’s burial place in Najaf, Iraq. His three wives, Sarfaraz Mahal, Mubarak Mahal and Mumtaz Mahal were also buried here.

Ghazi-ud-Din first appointed a British artist, Robert Home (1752 – 1834) as his court artist and after his retirement in 1828, he appointed another British, George Duncan Beechey (1798 – 1852) as his court artist. In 1815, Raja Ratan Singh (1782-1851), a noted astronomer, poet and scholar of Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Sanskrit and English joined his court. Because of his initiative, a royal litho printing press in Lucknow was set up in 1821 and the Haft Qulzum, a dictionary and grammar of the Persian language in two volumes was published from this press in the same year.

Haydar, Ghazi al-Din see Ghazi al-Din Haydar
Ghazi-ud-Din Haider see Ghazi al-Din Haydar
Haider, Ghazi-ud-Din see Ghazi al-Din Haydar


Ghazi Celebi
Ghazi Celebi.  Ruler of Sinop on the Black Sea in Turkey (r.1300-1330(?)).  He is known for his practical exploits against the Genoese, making sometimes alliance with and sometimes against the Greeks of Trabzon.


Celebi, Ghazi see Ghazi Celebi.


Ghazi Giray II
Ghazi Giray II (Bora) (b. 1554).  One of the greatest khans of the Crimea (r.1588-1607).  He managed to steer a course between the Ottoman sultan and the Crimean aristocracy, which was seeking independence from Istanbul.
Bora see Ghazi Giray II
Giray, Ghazi see Ghazi Giray II

Ghazi ibn Faysal I
Ghazi ibn Faysal I (Ghazi bin Faisal) (March 21, 1912 - April 4, 1939).  King of Iraq (r. 1933-1939).  His short reign was marked by the short-lived coup of General Bakr Sidqi in 1936.  Ghazi was born in Mecca.  In 1921, when his father, Faisal, became the king of Iraq, Ghazi, as his only son, was installed as the crown prince.  On September 8, 1933, Ghazi became the king of Iraq.  In October of 1936, Ghazi had the civilian government of Yassinu al-Hashemi overthrown.  In April of 1939, Ghazi died from injuries sustained in a car crash.  Ghazi was driving his sports car at the time.  He was succeeded by his son, Faisal.  Ghazi’s short rule was marked by divisions in the Iraqi society where groups inside the military forces clashed.  Ghazi was himself part of these clashes, and commanded the military to remove the civilian government of Iraq.  Ghazi was considered a popular leader, because of his nationalist approach in confronting the British. 

Ghazi bin Faisal was born in Mecca (in present-day Saudi Arabia), the only son of Faisal I, the first King of Iraq.

As Ghazi was the only son of Faisal I, he was left to take care of his grandfather, Hussein bin Ali, the Grand Sharif of Mecca, while his father was busy in his campaigns and travels. He therefore grew up, unlike his worldly father, a shy and inexperienced young man. He left the Hijaz to Jordan with the rest of the Hashimites in 1924. He came to Baghdad in the same year and was appointed as the crown prince. When he was 16 Ghazi was taken for his first airplane flight by the American adventurer Richard Halliburton and pilot Moye Stephens. They buzzed the school yard so his school mates could see him in the biplane and stopped in Samarra to have a picnic atop the famed spiral minaret.

On the September 8, 1933, King Faisal I died and Ghazi was crowned as King Ghazi I. On the same day, Ghazi was appointed Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Iraqi Navy, Field Marshal of

the Royal Iraq Army, and Marshal of the Royal Iraqi Air Force. A staunch pan-Arab nationalist, opposed to British interests in his country, Ghazi's reign was characterized by tensions between civilians and the army, which sought control of the government. He supported General Bakr Sidqi in his coup, which replaced the civilian government with a military one. This was the first coup d'état to take place in the Arab world. He was rumored to harbor sympathies for Nazi Germany and also put forth a claim for Kuwait to be annexed to Iraq. For this purpose he had his own radio station in al-Zuhoor royal palace in which he promoted that claim and other radical views.

Ghazi died in 1939 in a mysterious accident involving a sports car he was driving. Some believe he was killed on the orders of Nuri as-Said.

Faisal, Ghazi's only son, succeeded him as King Faisal II. Because Faisal was under age, Prince Abdul Ilah served as Regent until 1953.

On January 25, 1934 Ghazi married Princess Aliya bint Ali daughter of King Ali of Hejaz in Baghdad Iraq. They had only one son:

    * Faisal II, King of Iraq - born May 2, 1935 died July 14, 1958

Faysal, Ghazi ibn see Ghazi ibn Faysal I
Ghazi bin Faisal see Ghazi ibn Faysal I
Faisal, Ghazi bin see Ghazi ibn Faysal I


Ghazi Miyan
Ghazi Miyan (Sipah Salar Mas‘ud) (d.1033).  One of the earliest and most celebrated of Indo-Muslim saints.  His tomb at Bahraic in Uttar Pradesh is visited by Hindus and Muslims.
Miyan, Ghazi see Ghazi Miyan
Sipah Salar Mas‘ud see Ghazi Miyan
Mas'ud, Sipah Salar see Ghazi Miyan


Ghaznavid
Ghaznavid.  Sunni Turkish dynasty (r.977-1186 [1187?]) in Khurasan (Khorasan), Afghanistan, and northern India (the Punjab), with its center at Lahore.  The Ghaznavid empire was comprised of Afghanistan and parts of Iran and Central Asia and conquered much of India.
 
The Ghaznavids were a Turkish dynasty in Afghanistan, Khorasan (Persia), and northern India (977-1150), in the Punjab until 1186.  Their main capitals were Ghazna, and from 1156 Lahore.  It was founded by Alptigin (d. 963), a Samanid slave, who conquered the strategic mountain town of Ghazni in 962 and made it into an independent kingdom.  Following the conquest of the town of Ghazna (an outpost in mountainous east-central Afghanistan) by the Samanid army commander Alptegin (Alptigin) in 962, his successor Sebuktegin (Subuktigin) (r. 977-997) became governor of the Samanids in the Ghazna region, where he enjoyed de facto independent rule and conquered lands in Khorasan. 

Sebuktegin’s son, Mahmud of Ghazna (r. 998-1030), the most important early Islamic conqueror, eliminated the Samanid rule over Khorasan in 999, conquered Baluchistan and Khwarazm, neutralized the Qarakhanids and fought as a strict Sunnite against the Buyids (Rayy was captured in 1029).  Mahmud was acknowledged by the caliph and given an honorary title.  From 1001, his Indian conquests extended as far as Gujarat, Sind, and Kanauj in the center of the subcontinent, and paved the way for Islam in India. 

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (971-1030) was the greatest of the Ghaznavids.  Mahmud led numerous raids into the Punjab, looting Indian cities of enormous wealth that he used to convert Ghazni into one of the great centers of Islamic culture.  Before his death, Mahmud annexed the Punjab to this kingdom.

Mahmud’s son, Mas'ud I (r. 1030-1040), concentrated on India but was defeated on May 23, 1040, by the Seljuks at Dandanqan, who expelled the Ghaznavids from Khorasan, driving them eastward.

Under Maudud (r. 1041-1048), the murdered Mas'ud’s successor, the dynasty was able to hold its central Afghanistan homeland as well as its possessions in the Punjab.  Ibrahim I (r. 1059-1099), another of Mas'ud’s sons, came to power after a decade of internecine strife following Maudud’s death.  By making peace with the Seljuks, Ibrahim was able partially to reconsolidate the family’s position.  Ibrahim I (r. 1059-1099) relinquished all territories in the Oxus region.  His rule was limited to eastern Afghanistan and northern India. Ibrahim’s son, Mas'ud III (r. 1099-1115), continued his father’s policies.

None of their successors was able to maintain successfully the territorial claims of the Ghaznavids against the aspirations of the Seljuks, the Ghuzz (Oghuz) Turks, and the newly powerful Ghurid sultans.

Bahram Shah (r. 1118-1152) enforced his rule in the Punjab under the authority of the Ghurids, who captured Ghazna.

Ghazna was devastated by the Ghurid Ala al-Din Husain in 1150.  In 1160, the Ghaznavid capital was moved to Lahore.

In1186, the Ghurids removed the Ghaznavids after the conquest of Lahore. Muhammad of Ghur (Ghurid Shihab al-Din) (d. 1206) deposed the last Ghaznavid ruler in 1186.

The Ghaznavids introduce several themes of subsequent Islamic history: the concept of a “slave” dynasty attaining independence; the interaction of Turkish, Persian, nomadic, and sedentary traditions and systems; and the attractiveness of India for income, refuge, “holy war,” and empire.

Hundreds of scholars, including the poet Firdausi and the scientist Biruni, were in residence at Mahmud’s court.  Baihaqi’s history of Mas'ud’s reign is exemplary of a new Persian prose style; the architect of the Seljuk state, the vizier Nizam al-Mulk, began his career in the Ghaznavid chancellery.  Although the minarets of Ghazna are the better known architectural remains of this dynasty, the ruins of the palaces at Bust, comprising residences, mosques, baths, and so on, are more spectacular. 

Cultivating a Persian civilization, the Ghaznavids executed works of art in towns like Ghazna, Bust, Balkh, Herat, and Nishapur.  Archaeological remains provide an insight into the art that flourished under the aegis of the Ghaznavids.


Ghazzali
Ghazzali. See Ghazali.


Ghazzawi
Ghazzawi (Izzat al-Ghazzawi) (b. 1951).  Palestinian author.  He was born in Dayr al-Ghusoun, of refugee parents, on December 4, 1951.  In 1974, he graduated from the University of Jordan with a bachelor of arts degree in American-British literature.  In 1982, Ghazzawi graduated from the University of South Dakota with a master’s degree in American-British literature.  In this same year, Ghazzawi began working as a lecturer at Bir Zeit University in Palestine. 

In February of 1989, Ghazzawi was imprisoned for political activity in the Ashkelon prison of Beersheba, Israel.  In May of 1991, he was released from prison.  Ghazzawi’s son, Rami, was shot dead while participating in the intifada in 1993.

In 1994, Ghazzawi received the International Prize for Freedom of expression in Stavanger, Norway, and, in 1995, Ghazzawi was elected president of the Palestinian Writers Union.

Ghazzawi’s literature is centered around the troubles and sufferings from the Israeli occupation on the Palestinian territories.  A central component of his writings was his personal sufferings, which he thought could be directed into a power that could heal.  Ghazzawi’s literature was also concerned with the many qualities of life and its blessings.  All of his books have been translated into English, and certain works have been translated into German, French, Hebrew and Norwegian.  Ghazzawi was one of the leaders behind the intifada, heading the group of the intellectuals.  He worked as a lecturer in comparative literature at the Bir Zeit University and was also the leader of the Palestinian Writers Union.  He was married and had seven children.

Ghazzawi’s works include: The Woman Prisoner (Lebanon, 1986); A Critical View (Palestine, 1989); Letters Underway (Lebanon, 1989); The Edges (Palestine, 1993); Nebo Mountain (Lebanon, 1995); and Abdullah at-Tilali (Palestine, 1997).

Ghazzawi died on April 4 in his home in Ramallah. 


Izzat al-Ghazzawi see Ghazzawi


Ghifar
Ghifar (Banu Ghifar).  Small Arab tribe to whom the Prophet guaranteed in one of his earliest letters the protection of Allah and Allah’s messenger for their lives and goods. 
Banu Ghifar see Ghifar


Ghitrif ibn ‘Ata’
Ghitrif ibn ‘Ata’ ( al-Ghitrif ibn 'Ata').  ‘Abbasid governor of Khurasan of the eighth century.  He introduced a new coinage into Bukhara, the so-called Ghutrifi or black dirham. 
 al-Ghitrif ibn 'Ata' see Ghitrif ibn ‘Ata’


Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq I
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq I (Ghazi Malik) (d. 1325).  Founder of the Tughluqid dynasty and ruler of India (r.1320-1325).  A Turk by origin, he became governor of Dipalpur in the Punjab, held the Mongols at bay for fifteen years, and defeated Khusraw Khan, a Khalji general of Hindu origin who had apostasized from Islam and begun a reign of terror in Delhi.  Contemporary Muslim historiography eulogizes him as the savior of Islam in India. 

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq was the founder and first ruler (1320 – 1325) of the Turkic Muslim Tughluq dynasty in India. He was also the founder of the third city of Delhi called Tughluqabad.

About the close of his reign Alauddin Khilji had prepared an expedition of 10,000 men under Ghazi Malik to go to Debalpur to fight with the Chagatai Khanate Mongols. Ghazi Malik was thus enabled to go and secure Multan, Uch and Sindh for himself, especially as Aláuddín’s sons proved incapable and caused confusion in the affairs of the kingdom. Ghazi Malik ultimately took away the kingdom, from the possession of the house of Khiljí.

Alauddin Khilji’s son Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah was a mad man and was soon removed from the throne of Delhi by the hand of a murderer. The nobles of the state then put Khusro Khan on the throne. The latter began to bestow undue favors on mischievous people and to waste public money. The Hindus began to join him in large number. Seeing this state of things, Ghazi Malik’s son Fakhr Malik left Multan secretly and joined his father, informing him of what was happening at Delhi. Then, father and son collected the forces of Sindh and Multan and hastened to Delhi to help the Muslims against the Hindus. Arriving near Delhi with 3,000 veteran soldiers, they engaged in battle with the army of Khusro Khan, and defeated them. Then making their way into Delhi they again defeated Khusro Khan in battle and he fled away. About midnight the ministers and the headmen of the place came to Ghazi Malik and his son in their camp and gave up the keys of the fort. Early in the morning, Ghazi Malik entered the city with all the pomp and glory of a King.

Ghazi Malik went into mourning for three (3) days for the death of Alauddin Khilji and his son Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah. After these ceremonies were over he issued a proclamation with the view of finding out any member of the family of those princes in order that he might put him on the throne of Delhi. But as no such person could be found on search, the nobles, the troops, the learned men, the Syeds and other subjects united in selecting Ghazi Malik for the vacant post, as it was he who had removed all the cause of quarrel and disturbance in the country. Thus, in 1320, Ghazi Malik was crowned as the Sultan of Delhi with the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq and his son Fakhr Malik was given the title of Muhammad Shah Tughluq.

When, soon after this, Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (Ghazi Malik) proceeded from Multan to Delhi, the tribe of Soomro revolted and took possession of Thatta. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq appointed Tajuddin Malik as governor of Multan and Khwájah Khatír as governor of Bhakkar and he left 'Malik Ali Sher in charge of Sehwan. In 1323, he appointed his son Muhammad Shah his heir and successor and took a written promise or agreement to the arrangement from the ministers and nobles of the state. In 1324-1325, he died of heat apoplexy.

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq established himself as a great ruler. He removed corrupt officials from his administration. He reformed the judiciary and all existing police departments. He also reduced the land revenue to 1/10th of the produce. He was an efficient administrator and a capable military commander. He introduced a number of reforms for his welfare of his subjects and suppressed revolts in distant provinces.  He restored peace and stability in the Delhi Sultanate. Ghiyath al-Din was succeeded by his son Muhammad bin Tughluq.

Tughluq, Ghiyath al-Din see Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq I
Ghazi Malik see Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq I
Malik, Ghazi see Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq I


Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq II
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq II.  Grandson of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq I.  He ruled from 1388 to 1389.  His reign led to the rapid disintegration of the Delhi sultanate. 


Ghoul
Ghoul (in Arabic, Ghul) (Ghouleh).  Fabled being believed by the ancient Arabs to inhabit desert places.  Assuming different forms, a ghoul is able to lead travellers astray, to fall upon them unawares, and to devour them.  Ghouls appear in many stories.

A ghoul is a folkloric monster associated with graveyards and consuming human flesh, often classified as undead. The term is first attested in English in 1786, in William Beckford's Orientalist novel Vathek, which describes the ghūl of Arabian folklore.

By extension, the word ghoul is also used derogatorily to refer to a person who delights in the macabre.

In ancient Arabian folklore, the ghūl (Arabic: literally, demon) dwells in burial grounds and other uninhabited places. The ghul is a devilish type of jinn believed to be sired by Iblis.

The ghoul is a desert-dwelling, shapeshifting demon that can assume the guise of an animal, especially a hyena. It lures unwary travellers into the desert wastes to slay and devour them. The creature also preys on young children, robs graves, drinks blood, and eats the dead taking on the form of the one they previously ate.

In the Arabic language, the female form is given as ghouleh and the plural is ghilan. In colloquial Arabic, the term is sometimes used to describe a greedy or gluttonous individual.

The star Algol takes its name from the definite Arabic term, "al-ghūl", "the ghoul".


Ghul see Ghoul
demon see Ghoul
Ghouleh see Ghoul
Ghilen see Ghoul


ghulam
ghulam (in plural form, ghilman). Arabic word which literally means “young man” or “young boy.”  Originally, the term ghulam was applied to a male slave, servant or guard.  However, over time, the term also came to apply to those male slaves who rose to high positions in the civil service or military.  The plural of ghulam is ghilman. 

The term ghilman is specifically applied to slave ghilman, attendants or guards who played a role in the running of various eastern and western Muslim states.  The ‘Abbasid Caliph al-Mu‘tasim bi-Allah (833-842) caused to be bought at Samarkand about three thousand Turkish slaves who were to form the nucleus of his new guard and of the new army.  Their commanders began to occupy important positions and occasionally interfered in political affairs, under the ‘Abbasids in Samarra and Baghdad and in Egypt under the Tulunids, the Ikhshidids and the Fatimids.

In Persia, the institution of the ghilman began with the Turkish prisoners-of-war who fell into the hands of the Arab governors of Armenia and Khurasan.  Military slavery was practised under subsequent dynasties up to the reign of the Qajar Fath ‘Ali Shah.

In India, the Muslim conquest was mainly the achievement of Turkish ghilman, known as the Mu‘izzi or Slave Kings, who ruled from 1206 to 1290.  Military slaves continued to become high officers under the Khalji and Tughluq sultans.  Under the Mughals, however, slaves played a very minor part in administration and in the army, although they occasionally became subordinate commanders.

In the Ottoman Empire, administration was based upon the training of young slaves for the palace service and the service of the state.  The practice was inherited from the Saljuq Sultanate of Rum and continued until about 1700.  
“young man” see ghulam
“young boy”   see ghulam
ghilman see ghulam


Ghulam Husayn Khan Tabataba’i
Ghulam Husayn Khan Tabataba’i (1727-c.1815).  Political negotiator and soldier in India.  He is the author of a detailed history of India for the period from 1707 to 1781.

Ghulām Husayn Hān Ṭabāṭabā'ī Hassanī, author and historian, spent most of his life in the midst of the political vicissitudes during the waning days of the Mughal Empire, in particular those events related to the area of what is today the district of West Bengal, India. By profession he was a munshi (secretary) with a praiseworthy ability in letter writing, but it was politics that seemed to lead to his traveling from place to place and his continuous switching of patrons and supporters He appears to have had a great talent for creating connections with contemporary men of position and politicking. Ghulām Husayn Khān composed several works across a wide range of genres.
Tabataba'i, Ghulam Husayn Khan see Ghulam Husayn Khan Tabataba’i


Ghulam Muhyiuddin Anis
Ghulam Muhyiuddin Anis. Supporter of King Amanullah and, in 1927, founder of a private newspaper, named Anis after him.  During the civil war period (1929), he temporarily edited Habib al-Islam (“Beloved of Islam”) the newspaper of Amir Habibullah (Kalakani).  In 1931, Anis came under government control and, with the exception of the republican period (1973-1975), existed as a national, daily newspaper to the 1980s.  A Tajik, Anis was born in Herat and educated in Egypt.  Arrested after Nadir Shah ascended the throne, he remained in prison until his death in 1938.  He is the author of Crisis and Salvation (Buhran wa Nejat) which describes Nadir’s defeat of Habibullah Kalakani.
Anis, Ghulam Muhyiuddin see Ghulam Muhyiuddin Anis.


Ghulam Qadir Rohilla
Ghulam Qadir Rohilla  (Ghulam Qadir Khan Rohila) (d. 1789).  Eunuch, known for his cruel treatment of the Mughal emperor Shah ‘Alam (r.1759-1806) and his family.  He deposed the Shah in 1788, had him blinded, and had every conceivable cruelty perpetrated on the royal family.  He was put to death by the Marathas.

Ghulam Qadir Khan Rohila was the grandson of Najibuddaula, the Rohila chief, who had invited Ahmad Shah Abdali to come to India and punish the Marhathas, which he did in 1761 at the third battle of Panipat.

The Marathas along with the help of Shah Alam took revenge of this defeat in 1772 (after the death of Najibuddaula in 1770). Ghulam Qadir Khan the grandson of Najibuddaula avenged this defeat in 1788 by routing the Maratha forces and by plucking out Shah Alam's eyes from their sockets.

 

Rohilla, Ghulam Qadir see Ghulam Qadir Rohilla
Ghulam Qadir Khan Rohila see Ghulam Qadir Rohilla
Rohila, Ghulam Qadir Khan see Ghulam Qadir Rohilla


Ghulam-Reza Ruhani
Ghulam-Reza Ruhani (b. 1896).  Islamic poet.
Ruhani, Ghulam-Reza see Ghulam-Reza Ruhani


Ghulam Tha‘lab
Ghulam Tha‘lab (d. 957).  Nickname of an Arab philologist.  His fame rests on his extraordinary erudition in matters of Arabic vocabulary.


Ghumara
Ghumara (Banu Ghumara). Berber tribe of the western Maghrib, in what is now northern Morocco, who adopted Kharijite doctrines and caused difficulties to the Marinids. 
Banu Ghumara see Ghumara


Ghurids
Ghurids (Ghorids) (Shansabani).  Refers to a strongly Sunni eastern Iranian dynasty with its base at Ghur, the mountainous territory in northwestern Afghanistan.  Its capital was at Firuzkuh, (fl.c.1000-1214).  Having been vassals to the Ghaznavids and the Saljuqs, the Ghurids became a major power in Khurasan, Afghanistan and northern India in the twelfth century reaching their apogee between 1163 and 1206.  The Ghurids were generous patrons of art and literature.  Sultan ‘Ala’ al-Din Muhammad was deposed in 1214 by the Khwarazm-Shah, also called ‘Ala’ al-Din Muhammad (r.1200-1220).

The Ghurids were an Afghan dynasty in Afghanistan and northern India from 1150 to 1206/1212.  Their main capitals were Firuz, and also Lahore in 1186.  The Shansabani tribe from the mountains of central Afghanistan in the Ghur region, who only came to Islam in the eleventh century and had been under the authority of the Ghaznavids since 1010.  In 1099, the Ghurids were ruled from Ghazna by Ghaznavid governors, but from 1146 enjoyed self-rule in Firuzkuh.  They plundered Ghazna in 1150 under Ala al-Din Husain (r. 1149-1161) and by 1161 had taken possession of the Afghan land held by the Ghaznavids.  From 1178 they made conquests in India.  From Peshawar to the Sind coast (1182).  In 1186 they conquered Lahore and removed the Ghaznavids.  There followed dual rule by the elder Ghiyath al-Din (r. 1163-1203) in Firuzkuh and Herat and his brother, Muizz al-Din (r. 1173-1206), from 1203 overall ruler in Ghazna, from 1186 in Lahore.  In 1193, the Ghurids captured Delhi and extended their empire to Gujarat in the south and Bengal in the east (1202).  The empire disintegrated rapidly following the assassination of Muizz al-Din.  Ghurid forces had fallen to the Khwarazm Shahs by 1212 and India in 1206 to the Turkish general Aibak, who established the sultanate of Delhi. 

The Ghurids or Ghorids (Persian: self-designation: Shansabānī) were a Muslim dynasty of Iranian origin in Khorasan. The Ghurid empire was based in the region of Ghor (now a province of modern Afghanistan), and stretched over a vast area that included the whole of Afghanistan, parts of modern Iran and South Asia (India and Pakistan).

Ghurids were bounded to Ghaznavids and Seljuks almost 150 years before 1148. Between 1175 and 1192, under the leadership of Muhammad of Ghor the Ghurids put an end to Ghaznavid rule in India. They also captured their base in Lahore and founded the second Islamic state in India called the Ghurid state (1148-1215). This was named after Ghur, their native province, located in present day Afghanistan between Herat and Ghazni. Sultans of this state did not remain in India permanently; instead, they settled in their capital Ghazna and ruled India through their Turkic Ghulams, or slave warriors. They forced the Khilij, who inhabited lands ruled by the Ghurids' Ghaznavid neighbors, to capitulate to their rule.  They also occupied Uch, Multan, Peshawar, Lahore, and Delhi.

In 1206, one of the Ghurid generals, Qutb-ud-din Aybak, the conqueror of Delhi, made himself independent and founded the first of a succession of dynasties collectively known as the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526). After the Delhi Sultanate, the Khilij began to create a "slave-dynasty" of India. Sultan Mohammed El Ghurid bought large numbers of ghulams and looked after their education, preparing them for invasion and holy war. It is reported that whenever he was reminded of the necessity of having a son to preserve his rule, he responded with, "I have thousands of sons (i.e., ghulams)".

Some of these ghulams became rulers and leaders. Yildiz became the ruler of Ghazna, and Nasir al-Din Kubacha became a ruler of the Sindhi peoples. Qutb al-Din Aybak, in Delhi, had the most influence of all of Mohammed's "heirs". Thus, Mohammed al-Ghurid managed, due to his ghulams - especially Aybak - to capture all the Indian lands to the north of the Vindhya Mountains as far as the mouth of the Ganges River. Islam spread there. Its Hindu temples were changed into mosques and its Rajas paid tribute.

In 1206, Sultan Mohammed al-Ghurid was assassinated on the banks of the River Sind by a radical member of an Ismaili Muslim sect, most popularly known as the Hashshashin. On his death, the importance of Ghazna and Ghur dissipated and they were replaced by Delhi as the Islamic capital for the Ghurid Sultans in India.

The Ghurids were great patrons of Persian culture - language, identity, arts and literature were all of great importance to them, although many of the written works have been lost. They transferred the Khurasanian architecture of their native lands to India, several great examples of which can be seen in the Minars they built. Ghurids were demolished by Khwarezmids in 1215.
 
It is claimed that the Shansabānī had ancestral lines to the Sassanian royal family who - led by Prince Pirooz - fled with some hundred thousand followers from Western Iran to Khorasan, following the Arabic conquest of Persia, and that they were still Zoroastrians, isolated from all Arab-Islamic influence until the 11th century when they were eventually converted to Islam by the Samanid and Ghaznavid ghazis. Their isolation in the rough terrain of Ghor's mountains may be an explanation to why their language remained conservative and free of Arabic influence.

The language of the Ghurids is subject to some controversy. What is known with certainty is that it was significantly different from the New Persian literary language which dominated the kingly courts of the eastern Islamic lands. According to some old sources, it was related to Middle Persian, the language of the Sassanians. That would - to some extent - support the theory that the Ghurids were related to House of Sāsān and indeed formed a part of the eastward migration of Persian families following the Arab-Islamic conquest of Persia.

Some modern linguists also connect the language to certain Eastern Iranian languages, most of all to Yaghnobi which itself derives from ancient Sogdian.

Nevertheless, like the Samanids and Ghaznavids, the Ghurids were great patrons of the New Persian literature, poetry, and culture and promoted these in their courts as their own.


Ghorids see Ghurids
Shansabani see Ghurids


Ghuzz
Ghuzz (Oghuz).  Refers to a political confederation of nomadic tribes that played an important role in the history of the Eurasian steppe and in Southwest Asia.  Its influence was particularly important in Southwest Asia, as it gave rise to the dynasties of the Seljuks, Aq-Qoyunlu, and Ottomans. 

The name appears as early as the seventh century in the Orkhon Inscriptions in the form Tokuz Oghuz (“nine clans”), which refers to a confederation that belonged to the Turkut empire.  During the eighth century, the Ghuzz, as they are referred to in Arabic sources, began to move westward toward the Aral Sea, where they entered into the Islamic world around 775.  This early invasion was the main factor in the ninth century migration of the Magyars and Pechenegs across the Black Sea steppe. 

By the tenth century, a major Ghuzz state, Oghuz Yabgu, had arisen on the north coast of the Aral Sea. Its center was the city of Yanikent.  This state was important not for its existence but for its fall, which was tied in with two major events: the rise of the Seljuks and the appearance of the Cuman (Kipchak, Polovtsi) in western Asia and eastern Europe.  This came about as a result of nomadic migrations from eastern Asia in the middle of the eleventh century set in motion by the Khitai, who caused a chain reaction ending with the Cuman, who expelled the Ghuzz from the Aral Sea.  At this time the Oghuz steppe became the Kipchak steppe.  The Ghuzz then split into a northern group called the Torki, who migrated with the Cuman, disappearing around 1171, and a southern group that became the Seljuks.  From this point on the name Ghuzz merges with the name Turkmen, which designated those nomadic groups outside the control of the Seljuks: the Aq-Qoyunlu, and later the Ottomans.
Oghuz see Ghuzz


GIA
GIA.  See Group Islamique arme.
Group Islamique arme see GIA.


Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh (Bilgames). The Epic of Gilgamesh is an important poetic cycle of ancient Sumeria which was later expanded in the Akkadian language of Babylonia.  The hero, a half-historical, half-legendary demigod, is identified with the Gilgamesh who ruled at Uruk (Warka) in Babylonia about 2700 B.C.T.  The name Gilgamesh in Sumerian signifies “father, hero” or “the old one, the hero.” In the stories, Gilgamesh has a boon companion, Enkidu, a wild man tamed by a courtesan.  Among their adventures together is a journey to subdue the dreaded Huwawa, guardian of the cedar forest.

Ishtar, goddess of love, proposes marriage to Gilgamesh.  Gilgamesh spurns her advances.  When the two friends destroy the divine bull which Ishtar sends to punish them, the gods avenge themselves by killing Gilgamesh’s friend, Enkidu.  Afterwards Gilgamesh travels to the Babylonian “Noah”, Utnapishtim, survivor of the Great Flood, to learn the secret of immortality.  Utnapishtim shows Gilgamesh a magic plant which renews youth, but this is stolen by a serpent as Gilgamesh washes at a well.  Finally, Enkidu’s shadow returns to tell Gilgamesh the secrets of the gloomy world of the departed.  Elements from these stories have been detected in the Odyssey, the Aeneid, and other epics and sagas of the Classical and the Medieval worlds. 

Apart from its Sumerian prototype, the work is preserved in Akkadian in 12 tablets from the library of King Ashurbanipal of Assyria (669-630 B.C.T.), and also fragments in Hittite and Hurrian.  A fragment dating from about 1400 B.C.T. has been found at Megiddo in Palestine, so it is not surprising to find resemblances between the eleventh tablet of Gilgamesh, which describes the Flood and the Ark, and the Hebrew narrative in Genesis.

Timeless and philosophically profound, the epic of Gilgamesh is impregnated with deep pessimism.  The adventures of Gilgamesh and Enkidu transcend the confines of time and space, for they revolve about elemental forces and about human problems common to mankind throughout the ages.  Dignified and enigmatic, and yet wonderfully warm and immediate in their appeal, these stories are essential to the understanding of civilized man at an early, critical stage of world history. 
Bilgames see Gilgamesh


Gimr
Gimr.  A people of Sudan. The Gimr live predominantly on their ancestral land, Dar Gimr, which is situated on the Sudanese side of the international frontier with Chad.  The Gimr are bounded on the north by the Zaghawa, on the west by the Tama, on the south by the Erenga and Mileri and on the east by Arab pastoral nomads such as the Darrok and sections of the Mahamid. 

Although the Gimr speak only Arabic and claim Arab descent via the Jacaliyyin of the Nile River, they probably constitute an indigenous ethnic group which once formed part of the Tama language group.

Gimr historical traditions are more deeply rooted and better attested and remembered than those of the majority of their neighbors.  Before the Gimr were conquered by the Keira sultanate of Dar Fur in the early years of the eighteenth century, the Gimr exercised control over the neighboring Zaghawa, Tama and Mileri.  The old capital of this Gimr empire is reputed to be a site of ruins in what is now Dar Tama, in Chad.  Many of the administrative titles which were in use at that time have survived in Gimr folklore.

The history of the Gimr during the past century has been extremely checkered.  As a minor state situated between the two regional superpowers of the nineteenth century (the sultanates of Wadai and Darfur), Dar Gimr had been a tributary of the latter for most of 150 years, when in 1874 their overlords were conquered by the Turko-Egyptian administration, which had ruled the Nile Valley since 1821.  The Gimr paid an annual tribute to their new overlords until 1882, when the Mahdiyya defeated this “foreign” government.  For a number of years the Gimr paid tribute to the Mahdists.  However, when Mahdist armies made their appearance in the region and threatened the autonomy of the Gimr state, the latter joined other, similarly weak polities, and together they rose into armed struggle.

In contrast to the sultanate of Masalit in the south, which made a clever use of the unstable political situation of the time to consolidate and extend its newly found independence from their Fur overlords, the Gimr suffered heavily at the hands of the armies and raiding parties of the Mahdists, the Masalit, the Fur and the French. Between 1880 and 1910, each of them contributed to laying waste to Dar Gimr and putting its people to flight.  The Gimr sultan of that time, who saw all these foreign powers imperil his empire’s sanctity, acquired the nickname of “the one whose saddle is outside,” meaning that he was always prepared to flee.

Dar Gimr became part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan after the conclusion of the border negotiations with the French in 1924.  Until his death, the Gimr sultan, Idris (who was convinced that he would outlive the British as he had done all previous aggressors), was given carte blanche to tax and administer Dar Gimr.  However, many commoners literally escaped the predations of their countless rulers.  Also, poor rains, locust plagues and the introduction of taxes to be paid in cash caused great hardship among the Gimr.  This, coupled with their hatred of being administered by “foreigners,” caused a large-scale migration of Gimr either to regions with a better rainfall and better trading perspectives or to the Nile Valley in search of wage labor and spiritual guidance on the cotton plantations of the Jazira, which were owned by the one who might free them from the “Christian unbelievers,” namely, the son of the Mahdi, Sayyid Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi. 


Giray
Giray (Guirey) (Ghirat) (Ghiray) (Geray). Cognomen (surname) borne by the members of the dynasty which ruled in the Crimea from the beginning of the fifteenth century until 1783.  The family was descended from a grandson of Jenghiz Khan.

Giray, alternative spellings Guirey, Ghirai, Ghiray, or Geray, is the Genghisid dynasty which reigned in the Khanate of Crimea from its formation in 1427 until its downfall in 1783. The dynasty also supplied several khans of Kazan and Astrakhan between 1521 and 1550. Apart from the royal Girays, there was also a lateral branch, the Choban Girays (Çoban Geraylar). Before reaching the age of majority, young Girays were brought up in one of the Circassian tribes, where they were instructed in the arts of war. The Giray khans were elected by other Crimean Tatar dynasts, called myrzas (mırzalar). They also elected an heir apparent, called the qalgha sultan (qalğa sultan). In later centuries, the Ottoman Sultan obtained the right of installing and deposing the khans at his will.

According to some scholars, the Girays were regarded as the second family of the Ottoman Empire after the House of Ottoman.

During the 15th and early 16th centuries, the Giray Khan was second to the Ottoman Emperor, and superior to the Grand Vizier, in the Ottoman protocol. After the rebellion of Semiz Mehmed Giray, the sultan demoted the Crimean Khan to the level of Grand Vizier. The Giray Khans were also sovereigns of their own realm. They could mint coins, make law by decree, and had their own tughras.

After the khanate's annexation by Imperial Russia in 1783, the last khan Şahin Giray remained nominally in power until 1787, when he took refuge in the Ottoman empire, and was executed in Rhodes.

Other dynasts were permitted by the Russian authorities to reside in their Bakhchisaray palace. Selim III's young son, Qattı Giray, was converted by missionaries to Protestantism and married a Scottish heiress.

Since annexation most of the Girays have lived in Turkey. Some of them, however, have lived in other countries. The last Crimean Khan, Şahin Giray's, grandsons and daughters lived in Bursa and Istanbul.


Gisu Daraz
Gisu Daraz (Sayyid Muhammad Gisu Daraz) (1321-1422).  Celebrated Cishti saint, scholar and author of India.  He knew several languages, was a prolific writer and was fully conversant with Hindu folklore and mythology. 

In July 1321, about the time Ulugh Khan's army was sent to Warangal to recover the unpaid tribute owed by Pratapa Rudra, an infant son was born in Delhi to a distinguished family of Sayyids (Saiyids) – that is, men who claimed descent from the Prophet. Although he lived most of his life in Delhi, Sayyid (Saiyid) Muhammad Husaini Gisu Daraz would become known mainly for his work in the Deccan, where he died in 1422 at the ripe age of just over a hundred years.

As seen in the extract from Firishta's history quoted above, this figure occupies a very special place in Deccani popular religion: soon after his death his tomb-shrine in Gulbarga became the most important object of Muslim devotion in the Deccan. It remains so today. He also stands out in the Muslim mystical tradition, as he was the first Indian shaikh to put his thoughts directly to writing, as opposed to having disciples record his conversations. But most importantly, Gisu Daraz contributed to the stabilization and indigenization of Indo-Muslim society and polity in the Deccan, as earlier generations of Sufi shaikhs had already done in Tughluq north India. In the broader context of Indo-Muslim thought and practice, his career helped transform the Deccan from what had been an infidel land available for plunder by north Indian dynasts, to a legally inviolable abode of peace.


Sayyid Muhammad Gisu Daraz see Gisu Daraz


Gog and Magog
Gog and Magog (in Arabic, Yajuj wa-Majuj).  Two peoples who belong to Muslim eschatology.  They are mentioned in the Qur’an at Sura 18:90-95 and Sura 21:95-100.

Gog and Magog appear in the Book of Genesis, the Book of Ezekiel, and in the Book of Revelation and in the Qur'an. They are variously presented as men, supernatural beings (giants or demons), national groups, or lands. Gog and Magog occur widely in mythology and folklore.

 The Qur'an (early 7th century C.C.) gives information on Ya'jūj and Ma'jūj (Gog and Magog in Arabic). In sura Al-Kahf ("The Cave"), 18:83–98, a mysterious individual called Dhul-Qarnayn ("The Two-horned One") journeys to a distant land beyond the sunrise where he finds a people who are suffering from the mischief of Gog and Magog. Dhul-Qarnayn then makes an iron wall to keep Gog and Magog out, but warns that it will be removed in the Last Age. In Sura 21, Al-Anbiyā (The Prophets), the wall is mentioned again. There Allah tells his Prophet (Muhammad) that there is a prohibition upon the people of a city which Allah destroyed that they will not ever return until the dam of Gog and Magog has opened.  According to Islamic tradition (in Saḥīḥ al-Bukhāri), Gog and Magog are human beings, and the city mentioned in Sura 21 is Jerusalem.

The Qur'anic account of Dhul-Qarnayn follows very closely the "Gates of Alexander" story from the Alexander romance, a thoroughly embellished compilation of Alexander the Great's wars and adventures (see Alexander the Great in the Qur'an). Since the construction of a great iron gate to hold back a hostile northern people was attributed to Alexander many centuries before the time of Islamic Prophet Muhammad and the recording of the Qur'an, most historians consider Dhul-Qarnayn a reference to Alexander (see Alexander the Great in the Qur'an). However, some Muslim scholars reject this attribution, associating Dhul-Qarnayn with some other early ruler, usually Cyrus the Great, but also Darius the Great. Gog and Magog are also mentioned in some of the hadith, or sayings of Muhammad, specifically the Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, revered by Muslims.

Fourteenth century Muslim sojourner Ibn Battuta traveled to China on order of the Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq, and encountered a large community of Muslim merchants in the city of Zaitun. He comments in his travel log that "Between it [the city] and the rampart of Yajuj and Majuj is sixty days' travel." The translator of the travel log notes that Ibn Battuta confused the Great Wall of China with that supposedly built by Dhul-Qarnayn.

The Ahmadiyya Community present the view that Gog and Magog represent one or more of the European nations. They associate European imperialism after the Age of Discovery with the reference to Gog and Magog's rule at the "four corners of the world" in the Christian Book of Revelation. The Ahmadiyya founder Mirza Ghulam Ahmad linked Gog and Magog to the European nations and Russia. His son and second successor, Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad further expounds the connection between Europe and the accounts of Gog and Magog in the Bible, the Qur'an, and the hadith in his work Tafseer-e-Kabeer. According to this interpretation of Mahmood Ahmad in his commentary on Surah Al-Kahf (Urdu), Gog and Magog were the descendants of Noah who populated eastern and western Europe long ago, the Scythians. According to Ahmadiyya teachings, the period of the Cold War between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet union (identified as Gog and Magog) or the influence of Communism and capitalism, the conflict and rivalry between the two and the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union all occurred in accordance with the prophecies concerning Gog and Magog. Ahmadis also cite the folkloric British interpretation of Gog and Magog as giants as support for their view.

Ahmadis point out that the Arabic words for Gog and Magog i.e. Yajuj and Majuj derive from the root word Ajjij (to burn, blaze, hasten) which suggests that Gog and Magog will excel all nations in harnessing fire to their service and shall fight their battles with fire. In his commentary of Surah-Al-Masadd, Mirza Mahmood Ahmad, the Second Ahmadiyya leader has interpreted the two hands of Abu-lahab (the father of flame) as Gog and Magog, the nations opposed to Islam that will ultimately be destroyed by the 'fire' of their own making.

Christian and Muslim writers sometimes associated the Khazars with Gog and Magog. In his 9th century work Expositio in Matthaeum Evangelistam, the Benedictine monk Christian of Stavelot refers to the Khazars as Hunnic descendants of Gog and Magog, and says they are "circumcized and observing all [the laws of] Judaism". The Khazars were a Central Asian people with a long association with Judaism. The 14th century Sunni scholar Ibn Kathir also identified Gog and Magog with the Khazars who lived between the Black and Caspian Seas in his work Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (The Beginning and the End). A Georgian tradition, echoed in a chronicle, also identifies the Khazars with Gog and Magog, stating they are "wild men with hideous faces and the manners of wild beasts, eaters of blood". Another author who has identified this connection was the Arab traveller Ahmad ibn Fadlan. In his travelogue regarding his diplomatic mission to Elteber (vassal-king under the Khazars), he noted the beliefs about Gog and Magog being the ancestors of the Khazars.


Magog see Gog and Magog
Yajuj wa-Majuj see Gog and Magog
Majuj see Gog and Magog

Gokalp
Gokalp (Ziya Gokalp) (Mehmed Ziya’)  (Mehmet Ziya) (March 23, 1876, Diyarbakır—October 25, 1924, Constantinople). Turkish sociologist, writer, poet, and political activist. In 1908, after the Young Turk revolution, he adopted the pen name Gökalp ("sky hero"), which he retained for the rest of his life. As a sociologist, Ziya Gökalp was influential in the overhaul of religious perceptions and evolving of Turkish nationalism..  After the revolution of 1908, he became a member of the Union and Progress Committee and preached Pan-Turanism.  In 1921, he joined the movement led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.  He stressed the need for reforms in all aspects of life and after his death was recognized as the father of Turkish nationalism.

Mehmet Ziya was born in Diyarbakir to a family of mixed Turkish and Kurdish origins.  He attended the Imperial Veterinary School (1896) at Istanbul, where he joined the revolutionary Committee of Union and Progress (CUP).  He was dismissed from the school, arrested, and jailed when his affiliation with the CUP was discovered by the secret police in 1897.  After his release from prison, he returned to his native city and married his cousin Cevriye in 1898.  They had three daughters who survived him and a son who died at an early age.  Gokalp devoted his time in Diyarbakir mostly to ethnographic research among Kurdish and Turkoman tribes and to the study of Durkheimian sociology. 

Following the Young Turk revolution of July 1908, Mehmet Ziya founded a local branch

of the CUP.  He was a delegate to the important CUP Congress of Thessaloniki in 1909 where he was elected a member of the Central Committee, a position he held until the party dissolved in November 1918.  Gokalp’s brilliant career as a nationalist thinker started in Thessaloniki, with the nationalist literary journal Genc kalemler (1911), where he used the pseudonym “Gok Alp” for the first time.  When the Balkan War (1912-1913) broke out, he established himself in Istanbul, and continued to publish in various journals, notably Turk yurdu (1912-1914), Halka dogru (1913-1914), Islam mecmuasi (1914-1915), and Yeni mecmua (1917-1918).  In 1915, he became a professor of sociology at Istanbul University.  As a member of the Central Committee of the CUP, he was arrested and tried after World War I as a war criminal and deported to Malta by the British (1919).  After his release, he lived for a short period in Diyarbakir where he published the journal Kucuk mecmua (1922-1923).  Although he was elected deputy for Diyarbakir in 1923 on a Kemalist slate, he remained quite isolated in the capital city owing to his record as a notable CUP member and an admirer of Enver Pasha.  He soon moved to Istanbul because of poor health and died there on October 25, 1924.

As a thinker, sociologist, poet, and politician, Ziya Gokalp has been one of the most influential minds in twentieth-century Turkish political and intellectual history.  He is the theoretician par excellence of Turkish nationalism as a ground for synthesis of secularist westernization and Islamic reform movements.  He never published a major work to express methodically his idea of nationalism.  Even his Principles of Turkism (1923), which can be considered his final word on the subject, is a collection of essays on nationalism previously published in journals and newspapers.  However, despite the tentative character of some of his ideas and his occasional modification of them, a highly articulate understanding of nationalism emerged in the numerous essays he published over a period of fifteen years.

Like almost all his contemporaries, Gokalp was obsessed with the predicament of the Ottoman state, and his initial quest for a solution to keep that polity viable can be considered an expression of Social Darwinism.  What made him move away from his predecessors and contemporaries, however, was his conversion to French sociological thought through the works of Emile Durkheim and his subsequent reflection on the structure of Europe.  This led him to make a distinction between culture, which remained national, and civilization, which was shared internationally.  European society was divided into nation states despite centuries of identification with the same religion and a few multi-ethnic polities.  Since that history could not obliterate the differences of language and customs, nationality was the most essential characteristic of human societies.  Hence, Gokalp believed that Western civilization represented the sum total of Western nation states who shared a material and political civilization.  According to Gokalp, this civilization cannot be related to Christianity for two reasons.  First, despite the fact that religions are shared internationally, they exercise their appeal on individuals through a national language and a series of rituals that differ from one nation to another and are thus “nationalized.”  Second, Western civilization was based on a suprareligious political organization and had already incorporated non-Christians such as Jews and Japanese.  Gokalp contends that not only would the reorganization of the Ottoman Turkish polity along nationalistic lines invigorate that polity, but it would also pave the way for the Ottoman Turks to join Western civilization.  In other words, unearthing the national genius was synonymous with westernization.  In accordance with this thought, he vehemently insisted that Turkish nationalism would be a source of strength for the Ottoman Empire and contended, somewhat later, that the empire should be reorganized as a confederation of Turks and Arabs. 

To join Western civilization meant for Gokalp both political action and social engineering.  Political action consisted of secularization (muasirlasmak) of all aspects of social life, to the point of confining religion to the strictest individual sphere.  As an influential member both of the Central Committee of the CUP and of the parliamentary commission that drafted the Turkish constitution, he was the mastermind in the secularization process at two important turning points, in 1917 and in 1923-1924.  His insistence on placing the evkaf (awqaf, in Arabic) schools under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education and the seriat (shari‘a) courts under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Justice in 1917 can be considered as the first steps, respectively, toward the Law on the Unification of Education passed in 1924 and the Civil Code adopted in 1926.  In perfect harmony with positivistic determinism, yet another fashion of his age, Gokalp thought that social engineering too was necessary, for Turkish society had developed structural shortcomings for historical reasons.  Composed almost exclusively of bureaucrats and agriculturalists, this society lacked the entrepreneurial class that had the most crucial role in the social division of labor in modern nation-states.  Thus, Gokalp was also the initiator of the mobilization for “national(ist) economy” (milli iktisat), which consisted of a propaganda campaign aimed at developing the moneymaking instinct of the Turks and a series of legal measures, the most significant of which was protectionism.

Ziya Gokalp’s name has been associated with Pan-Turanism and proto-fascistic solidarism.  During the period between 1912 and the end of World War I, Gokalp leaned toward Pan-Turanism under the influence of Russian émigrés and particularly of the Azeri publicist Huseyinzade Ali, active in Istanbul.  This leaning also partly explains his sympathy for Enver Pasha, the champion of Pan-Turanism among the CUP leadership, to whom he dedicated his collected poems, Kizil elma, published shortly after the Ottoman Empire entered World War I.  This romantic weakness of Gokalp survives also in his Principles of Turkism, though in the form of a mild utopianism.  In the final analysis, his Pan-Turanism can be considered as a symptom of an age when the boundaries of a self-contained nation-state still appeared too modest to Turkish imperial hangover.  His solidarism is less evident.  There are sections in his Principles of Turkism that contradict each other, some thoroughly liberal and other solidaristic professions of faith.  This is a result of the effect of the World War and the Bolshevik Revolution on Gokalp.  The scramble for mandates in the Middle East and the social upheavals in Europe in the aftermath of the war were rationalized by Gokalp as the outcome of capitalistic greed.  In 1923, he still thought of the entrepreneurial class as essential in the social division of labor, but he also advocated that the individual ventures be monitored by the state for the general good of the society.

Obsessed as he was with the nation-state, Gokalp neglected the study of the Ottoman Empire, a polity he discarded as a cosmopolitan, hybrid oddity.  It is this weakness in historical outlook that led him to equate secularization exclusively with modernization.  He ignored, for instance, the secular kanun tradition that constituted one of the pillars of the Ottoman Empire.  This is yet another characteristic typical of the generation who founded the Turkish Republic, for which Ziya Gokalp was undoubtedly a spiritual father. 
Ziya Gokalp see Gokalp
Mehmed Ziya’ see Gokalp
Ziya', Mehmed see Gokalp
“Gok Alp” see Gokalp
"sky hero" see Gokalp
Mehmet Ziya see Gokalp


Golconda
Golconda.  Refers to the Qutb Shahs of the Indian (actually Turkoman) dynasty in the Deccan (peninsular India) (r.1512-1687).  Their main capitals were Muhammadnagar (Golconda) and, from 1590, Hyderabad.  The dynasty was founded by a nephew of the last ruler of the Qara Qoyunlu, who fled to India when their empire collapsed in 1478.  His son, Sultan Quli (1512-1543), governor for the Bahmanids in Telingana from 1493, broke free following the fall of the Bahmanid empires in 1512 and established the Qutb-Shah state, which secured great independence under the stable government of his successors.  The governments of Muhammad Quli (1581-1612) and Abd Allah (1626-1672) marked the cultural zenith.  The last ruler, Abu’l-Hasan (1672-1687), is remembered primarily as a poet.  In 1687, the Qutb Shah state was conquered by the Mughal ruler Aurangzib, who proceeded to annex the enitre Deccan to the Mughal empire. 


Golden Horde
Golden Horde (Ulus of Jochi) (Ulus of Juchi) (Khanate of the Qipchaq) (Kipchaq Khanate).  Refers to the group of Islamized Mongols having a Turkic ethnic majority.  The Golden Horde controlled Russia from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries.  The name the Golden Horde was the name given by the Russians to the western division of the Mongol Empire, which ruled from 1227 to 1502.  It was created by Batu ibn Juci on the lower Volga, with its center at Old (later New) Saray.  In eastern literature, the country is usually referred to as the Qipcaq (Kipchak) Steppe.  Batu’s brother Berke was the first Mongol prince to become a Sunni Muslim and, thereby, began the incorporation of the Tatars into Islam.  Berke's death did not altogether put an end to Islamic influence, although his immediate successors were again Shamanists.  Ozbeg Khan (r. 1313-1341), a Muslim himself, definitely strengthened the position of Islam.  The Golden Horde became more and more at the mercy of Poland-Lithuania and Muscovy.  After 1419, the formation of independent khanates in Qazan, Astrakhan and in the Crimea started the disintegration of the Golden Horde.  In 1502, the Golden Horde was vanquished by the Crimea and Muscovy.  

The term Golden Horde is a Russian designation for the Ulus Juchi, the western part of the Mongol Empire, which flourished from the mid-13th century to the end of the 14th century. The people of the Golden Horde were a mixture of Turks and Mongols, with the latter generally constituting the aristocracy.

The ill-defined western portion of the empire of Genghis Khan formed the territorial endowment of his oldest son, Juchi. Juchi predeceased his father in 1227, but his son Batu expanded their domain in a series of brilliant campaigns that included the sacking and burning of the city of Kiev in 1240. At its peak the Golden Horde’s territory included most of European Russia from the Urals to the Carpathian Mountains, extending east deep into Siberia. On the south the Horde’s lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the Iranian territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Il-Khans.

Batu founded his capital, Sarai Batu, on the lower stretch of the Volga River. The capital was later moved upstream to Sarai Berke, which at its peak held perhaps 600,000 inhabitants. The Horde was gradually Turkified and Islāmized, especially under their greatest khan, Öz Beg (1313–41). The Turkic tribes concentrated on animal husbandry in the steppes, while their subject peoples, Russians, Mordvinians, Greeks, Georgians, and Armenians, contributed tribute. The Russian princes, particularly those of Muscovy, soon obtained responsibility for collecting the Russian tribute. The Horde carried on an extensive trade with Mediterranean peoples, particularly their allies in Mamelūke Egypt and the Genoese.

The Black Death, which struck in 1346–47, and the murder of Öz Beg’s successor marked the beginning of the Golden Horde’s decline and disintegration. The Russian princes won a signal victory over the Horde general Mamai at the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. Mamai’s successor and rival, Tokhtamysh, sacked and burned Moscow in retaliation in 1382 and re-established the Horde’s dominion over the Russians. Tokhtamysh had his own power broken, however, by his former ally Timur, who invaded the Horde’s territory in 1395, destroyed Sarai Berke, and deported most of the region’s skilled craftsmen to Central Asia, thus depriving the Horde of its technological edge over resurgent Muscovy.

In the 15th century, the Horde disintegrated into several smaller khanates, the most important being those of the Crimea, Astrakhan, and Kazan. The last surviving remnant of the Golden Horde was destroyed by the Crimean Khan in 1502.

Ulus of Jochi see Golden Horde
Ulus of Juchi see Golden Horde
Khanate of the Qipchaq see Golden Horde
Kipchaq Khanate see Golden Horde


Goni Mukhtar
Goni Mukhtar (d. 1809).  Leader of the Fula jihad against the Kanuri state of Bornu (in Niger and Nigeria).   {Goni is actually a Bornu title for someone who has mastered the Qur’an.}   He lived in Deya, a province of Bornu.  When the Fula Islamic leader ‘Uthman dan Fodio declared a jihad and appealed for support, Goni became leader of the southern contingent of Fula rebels against Bornu while another army attacked from the west.  The two armies gained control of most of Bornu, and in 1808 Goni Mukhtar drove the mai -- the ruler -- from the capital and occupied it.  The mai, Ahmad Alimi, abdicated in favor of his son Dunama, who searched for assistance.  Assistance came from al-Kanemi, a Muslim cleric from Bornu province whose followers joined forces with the Bornu army to liberate the capital in 1809.  Goni Mukhtar was killed in the fighting.  The event marked the first stage in al-Kanemi’s take-over of the Bornu state.  The Fula retained control of western Bornu, and the Misau Emirate there was founded by Goni Mukhtar’s descendants.


Gorontalese
Gorontalese.  The Gorontalese occupy nearly half of the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, officially known as the Province of North Sulawesi in the Republic of Indonesia.  The area’s main city is Gorontalo on the Gulf of Tomini. 

There are several opinions regarding the origins of the people of Gorontalo.  One is that they were an indigenous tribe located around Lake Limbotto.  Another is that the Suwawa and Boelemo originated in South Sulawesi and migrated north.  There are records to show that the Suwawa kingdom was founded in the eighth century and had trading relations with the Lusu kingdom in South Sulawesi.  The kingdoms of Gorontalo and Limbotto came into existence in the fourteenth century and gained influence around the Gulf of Tomini.  They conducted trade with peoples throughout the Molucca Sea, including the Ternate.  In 1673, all the groups created a federation which later became the Kingdom of Lima Pohalaa.  In 1889, the Dutch gave the kingdom the name “Gorontalo.”

Islam apparently came to Gorontalo in the early sixteenth century.  In 1563, King Matolodulakiki declared it the official state religion.  In 1677, the Dutch Governor Padtbrugge of the Moluccas advocated Christianity and required observance of the religion in formal Dutch local agreements.  This policy was opposed by a number of local maharajas, two of whom were banished to Ceylon.  By the end of the century, religious conflicts had become widespread.  Muslims and Christians both considering the other kafir, non-believers.  A Muslim who became a Christian could be thrown out of his community, deprived of his hereditary rights and even exiled.  If he were a descendant of the aristocracy, he might lose his right to succeed to higher positions.  On the other hand, non-Muslims, especially Chinese or Dutch, who accepted Islam were received with many honors.

The nearly one million Gorontalese are one of three major people groups of northern Sulawesi. Formerly mountain dwellers, the Gorontalese now inhabit scattered villages along the plain or coastal strip of the Sulawesi's northern peninsula, particularly in the city district of Gorontalo.

Sulawesi is located directly south of the Philippines. This large crab-shaped island is generally mountainous and marked by volcanic cones. Tropical rain forests are also characteristic of the area. The history of this region is one of the rising and falling of petty kingdoms. The kingdoms would occasionally ban together in times of war to form a larger and more powerful army. It seems likely that the region was originally inhabited by the Toradja peoples.

To the east of the Gorontalese are the neighboring Minahasans of Minado Island. The Minahasans have been strongly influenced by Dutch colonization and Christian education. As a result, they have been converted to Christianity. Unfortunately, however, the Gorontalese have remained devout Muslims and are largely unevangelized. There seem to be many barriers of prejudice between the two groups. There are no native Gorontalese churches, and local Christians are frightened to reach out to the Muslim Gorontalese for fear of persecution.

Rice, maize, and the fruit of sago palms are important food sources to the Gorontalese. Yams and millet are secondary crops, and coconut is grown commercially. Nets, traps, and harpoons are used for fishing in the lakes. Rattan (a type of palm) and damar (trees grown for timber) are gathered for sale. Cattle are commonly used for pulling heavy loads and horses for riding.

Indonesia has more than eight million farmers who are without land. To aid in this situation, the government offers free land, housing, and other assistance to those who are willing to move from overcrowded areas to the less developed islands.

Gorontalese society is patrilineal, which means that lines of descent are traced through the males. Marriages follow the Muslim pattern and are arranged by a "go between." This middleman has the responsibility of negotiating the bride price for the groom, an amount that is determined by the girl's social status. Although cross cousin marriages are preferred, parallel cousin marriages do sometimes occur. Once married, a couple usually lives with the bride's mother until the first child is born. Then the couple leaves to establish their own household. Each spouse owns property separately, and only the land obtained after marriage becomes mutual property.

Islam, the dominant religion in Indonesia today, is practiced by nearly 85% of the country's population. Hinduism is practiced by only 2% of the population, and about 8% are Protestant Christians. Many also follow Buddhist-Taoist teachings. Animism, the belief that non-living objects have spirits, is also practiced by tribes in remote areas.

Virtually all the Gorontalese are Sunni Muslims, although many of their ritual ceremonies and practices are actually a mixture of several religions.

Indonesian is spoken in the urban areas and taught in the schools. However, most of the Gorontalese—especially the women—speak only Gorontalo, for which there is no written script. Efforts are currently being made to complete a Bible translation as well as audio materials in the Gorontalo language. Prayer for the completion of these materials is needed.

Although Indonesians have religious freedom, the large Muslim population has strong political influence.

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